Education Studies & Education Studies (Early Childhood)

 

ES 3219: Early Years Education

 

Richard House

 

2013–2014 Semester 2

 

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Last updated 31.03.14.

 

 

Summary Outline

This is a module of two halves. In weeks 2–6, you will be (re-)introduced to some key thinkers – Max Weber, the Freuds and subsequent psychoanalytic thinkers, and Michel Foucault. These theorists’ challenging ideas may not usually be associated with Early Years education, but they provide us with a body of theory which can be helpfully applied to illuminate current policy trajectories, including the contemporary English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) model, to help us construct cogent and penetrating analyses, critiques and alternatives. In order to be able to do this, you will need to have an understanding of the structure and content of the revised Early Years Foundation Stage Guidance (2011) and the Foundation Stage Profile (see weeks 5 & 6. 

   In contrast with the first half of the module, in weeks 7–11 you will meet some of the most important and influential writers and practitioners to have worked in the area of early childhood education in post-Enlightenment Europe. Each of these – Pestalozzi, Froebel, Steiner and Malaguzzi – developed ideals and approaches which can be used to interrogate the Foundation Stage Guidance/Profile and the revised Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum. Several themes are common to these four educators, and these will be explored in week 11, in a session aimed at supporting you in developing your own application of their work to the contemporary English Early Years documents, and to inform your second assignment.

   Web pages associated with each week's lecture will sometimes be accessible through the module outline in advance via right-clicking, and then ‘hyperlink’. These are intended as aids and pointers to further, widened study; they are not intended as substitutes for your own lecture notes.

 

Please note: there are links to diverse materials in this module description, including the lecture notes from last year, which have been built up through previous teaching of the module, and some of which are now somewhat dated, as the policy-making process has been moving so quickly. You are invited to ‘dip into’ this material and engage with what interests you (and not least because how we got to where we are now is also very important to know about); however, new relevant and updating material (including new handouts and LN-uploaded literature) will also be introduced, as we work through the module together.

 

 

Schedule and Essential Reading

 

WEEK 1:

General Introduction: Contextualising Early Childhood Education (ECE) - politics, tensions, complexities...

On the module we’ll be focusing very much on England’s Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS); but to avoid undue parochialism, it is useful to begin by looking at some comparative studies and commentaries on ECE in a number of other (Western) countries. The two articles below (which are both available to download through the Athens system via ejournals) are a useful way into these discussions. We will also use the session as a general introduction to the module and its core themes.

In this introductory session there will be an overview of the current English early years policy-making landscape, including some consideration of how we got where we are, historically, and also some comparative analysis of other developed countries’ early years provision, and current discernible trends in ECE. Questions like ‘What constitutes early years education in terms of age range?’ will be considered. Thus, we will spend some time looking at how ‘early childhood’ is defined through the English/British policy-making process.

 

Set Readings

 

Jensen, A.S, Broström, S. and Hansen, O.H. (2010) ‘Critical perspectives on Danish early childhood education and care: between the technical and the political’, Early Years, 30 (3): 243–54; link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2010.506599

 

Soler, J. and Miller, L. (2003) ‘The struggle for early childhood curricula: a comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, Te Wha¨riki and Reggio Emilia’, International Journal of Early Years Education, 11 (1): 57–67; DOI: 10.1080/0966976032000066091

 

 

Additional Select ReadingSome General Texts on ECE

 

Anning, A., Cullen, J. and Fleer, M. (eds) (2008) Early Childhood Education: Culture and Society, 2nd edn, London: Sage, 248pp; Lib. Ref.: on order (1st edn at 372.216/ANN)

Bruce, T. (2011) Early Childhood Education, 4thedn, London: Hodder Education, 240pp; Lib Ref.: on order (earlier editions are at 372.216/BRU)

Clark, M.M. and Waller, T. (2007) Early Childhood Education and Care: Policy and Practice, London: Sage (Lib Ref.: 372.216/CLA)

Curtis, A. (1997) A Curriculum for the Pre-School Child, 2nd edn, London : Routledge, 224pp; Lib. Ref.: 375/CUR

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (1999) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Postmodern Perspectives, London: Falmer Press; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DAH

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2nd edn, London: Routledge; Lib ref.: on order (1st edn as above)

David, T., Curtis, A, and Siraj-Blatchford, I. (1993) Effective Teaching in the Early Years: Fostering Children's Learning, Stoke: Trentham Books (Lib. Ref.: 372.1/DAV)

Dowling, M. (1995) Starting School at Four, London: Paul Chapman; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DOW

Drury, R,, Miller, L. and Campbell, R. (2000) Looking at Early Years Education and Care, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DOW

Einarsdottir, J. and Wagner, J.T (eds) (2005) Nordic Childhoods and Early Education: Philosophy, Research, Policy and Practice in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 324pp (Lib. ref.: on order)

Farquhar, S. and Fitzsimons, P. Philosophy of Early Childhood Education: Transforming Narratives, Oxford: Blackwell; Lib ref.: on order (also published as Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39 (3), 2008 – available online)

Golinkoff, R.M., Singer, D.G. and Hirsh-Pasek, K. (eds) (2006) Play = Learning: How Play Motivates and Enhances Children's Cognitive and Social-Emotional Growth, New York: Oxford University Press (Lib. Ref.: available as an ebook)

House, R. (ed.) (2011a) Too Much, Too Soon?: Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press: Stroud (Lib. Ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (eds) (2012a) Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage (Lib. Ref.: on order at 14/1/13)

Moore, R.S. and Moore, D.N. (1975) Better Late Than Early: A New Approach to Your Child's Education, New York: Reader's Digest Press (Lib ref.: awaiting shelving, Jan ‘13)

Moss, P. and Penn, H. (1996) Transforming Nursery Education, London: Paul Chapman (Lib. Ref.: 372.216/MOS)

Nutbrown, C., Clough, P. and Selbie, P. (2008) Early Childhood Education: History, Philosophy and Experience, London: Sage (Lib Ref.: 3 copies on order at 14/1/13)

OECD (2006) Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care, Part 2, Paris: OECD Publishing, 441pp;  Lib. Ref.: on order

OECD (2012) Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD Publishing, 372pp; Lib. Ref.: on order

Olfman, S. (2003) All Work and No Play: How Educational Reforms are Harming Our Preschoolers, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press [not in lib.]

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006a) Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, 224pp; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Woodhead, M. (eds) (2009) Effective Early Childhood Programmes, Milton Keynes: Open University Press; 'Early Childhood In Focus' series, No. 4 (see Learning Network)

Soto, L.D. (ed.) (2006) The Politics of Early Childhood Education, 3rd edn, New York: Peter Lang (Lib Ref.: 372.216/SOT)

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 Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and  Taggart, B. Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Project, London: Routledge (Lib ref.: 372.216/SYL)

Ward, I. (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education: Papers Presented at the Anna Freud Centre Centenary Conference, November 1995, London: Karnac and Freud Museum (Lib. ref.: on order)

Yelland, N. (ed.) (2005a) Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, 272pp; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL (5 available)

 

 

 

WEEK 2:

 

MAX WEBER:  BUREAUCRATIZATION, RATIONALIZATION AND PROFESSIONALIZATION OF EARLY YEARS EDUCATION

The great sociologist Max Weber advocated the study of social action through interpretive (rather than purely empiricist) means (hence his anti-positivistic stance), grounded in an understanding of the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their actions. A central concern for Weber was to interrogate and understand the processes of rationalisation, secularisation and ‘disenchantment’ that he linked with the ascendancy of capitalism and ‘modernity’ and which he understood as stemming from a new way of thinking about reality. Weber was the first theorist to categorise social authority into distinct categories, to which he applied the labels ‘charismatic’, ‘traditional’ and ‘rational-legal’. His seminal analysis of bureaucracy showed how the institutions of the modern nation-state are increasingly based on rational-legal authority.

     For many commentators, the most important theme in Weber’s work is the issue of rationalisation (referring to increasing knowledge, growing impersonality and enhanced control of social and material life), and specifically, the question of individual freedom in an increasingly rational society. For Weber, rationalisation and intellectualisation, and what he called the associated ‘disenchantment of the world’ and the Godless science of ‘modernity’, were a core concern – the relavance of this to early childhood experience should be clear. His focus on bureaucratisation, especially in its modern rational-legal form, is also of great presceience. In the growth of modern bureaucratic state apparatuses, Weber saw the institutionalisation of purposive-rational economic and administrative action, with everyday life being colonised by such rationalisation, and with more traditional forms of life thus disappearing. Weber also criticised rationalisation for dehumanising individuals as ‘cogs in the machine’ and curtailing their freedom, trapping them in the bureaucratic ‘iron cage’ of rationality and bureaucracy.

     There should certainly be enough here for us to get our analytical teeth into in relation to early-years policy making in late modernity! – and not least Weber’s theories are very relevant to an early years field in which there now exist strong forces towards professionalisation (e.g. see EYPS status), as well as towards bureaucratisation and political control, ‘audit-mindedness’, and a major ratcheting-up in preoccupations with rationalist assessment and observation of children. The paper by Urban (2008) (see below) is an especially important read in relation to the professionalisation of the early years workforce, and what might be being lost or compromised in the ‘professionalisation’ process. Along with Jayne Osgood’s important work (e.g. see her 2006a and b papers), issue 16 (2), 2008 of the European Early Childhood Education Research Journal is a special issue on professionalism and professionalisation, for those wishing to pursue this highly topical theme more deeply (and expecially for those intending to work in the early childhood sphere).

 

 

Set Readings

 

Weber, M. (1991) ‘Bureaucracy’, in his Essays in Sociology, 2nd edn, London: Routledge, pp. 214–44 (Lib. ref.: 301/WEB); available free online, and printable, at: http://archive.org/details/frommaxweberessa00webe

 

Jenkins, R. (2000) ‘Disenchantment, enchantment and reenchantment: Max Weber at the Millennium’, Max Weber Studies, 1: 11–32; freely downloadable at:

http://www.maxweberstudies.org/MWSJournal/1.1pdfs/1.1%2011-32.pdf

 

Ritzer, (1975) ‘Professionalization, bureaucratization and rationalization: the views of Max Weber’, Social Forces, 53 (4):  627–34; available through Athens/ejournals (pdf downloadable)

 

*    

Additional Reading

 

Carroll, A.J. (2011) Disenchantment, rationality, and the modernity of Max Weber’, Forum Philosophicum, 16 (1): 11737; downloadable as a pdf at: http://publications.heythrop.ac.uk/1094/1/CARROLL-FORUM.indd.pdf

Douglass, A. and Hoffer Gittell, J. ‘Transforming professionalism: relational bureaucracy and parent–teacher partnerships in child care settings: Journal of Early Childhood Research, 10: 267–81

Giddens, A. (1971) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Giddens, A. (1972) Politics and Sociology in the Thought of Max Weber, London: Macmillan

Hughes, J., Martin, P. and Sharrock, W. (1995) Understanding Classical Sociology: Marx, Weber, Durkheim, London: Sage

Marcuse, H. (1988) ‘Industrialization and capitalism in the work of Max Weber’, in H. Marcuse, Negations: Essays in Critical Theory, London: Free Association Books

Osgood, J. (2004) ‘Time to get down to business? The responses of early years practitioners to entrepreneurial approaches to professionalism’, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2 (1): 524; available through Athens DOI: 10.1177/1476718X0421001

Osgood, J. (2006a) Deconstructing professionalism in early childhood education: resisting the regulatory gaze’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 514 (you can access this paper online at this link: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=7&issue=1&year=2006&article=2_Osgood_CIEC_7_1_web)

Osgood, J. (2006b) ‘Rethinking “professionalism” in the early years: perspectives from the United Kingdom’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 14 (you can access this paper online here: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/rss/abstract.asp?j=ciec&aid=2738

Osgood, J. (2006c) ‘Professionalism and performativity: the feminist challenge facing early years practitioners’, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 26 (2): 18799; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09575140600759997

Osgood, J. (2009) ‘Childcare workforce reform in England and “the early years professional”: a critical discourse analysis’, Journal of Education Policy, 24 (6): 73351; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/02680930903244557

Osgood, J. (2010a) Narratives from the Nursery: Negotiating Professional Identities in Early Childhood, London: Routledge (Lib ref.: on order)

Osgood, J. (2010b) ‘Reconstructing professionalism in ECEC: the case for the “critically reflective emotional professional”, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 30 (2): 11933; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09575146.2010.490905

Morrison, K. (1995) Formations of Modern Social Thought: Marx, Durkheim, Weber, London: Sage

Ray, L. (1999) Theorising Classical Sociology, Buckingham: Open University Press

Samier, E. (2002) ‘Weber on education and its administration: prospects for leadership in a rationalized world’, Educational Management and Administration, 30 (1): 27–45; available through Athens/ejournals

Turner, B. (1991) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, London: Routledge, trans. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills

Urban, M (2008) ‘Dealing with uncertainty: challenges and possibilities for the early childhood profession’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 16 (2): 13552

Weber, M. (1905) ‘Objectivity in science and social policy’, in E.A. Shils and H.A. Finch (eds), The Methodology of the Social Sciences, New York: The Free Press, 1949

Weber, M. (1930) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Harmondsworth: Penguin pp. 13–31 and 47–55

Weber, M. (1991) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, London : Routledge

Weber, M. (1994) Political Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Wilensky, H.L. (1964) ‘Professionalization of everyone?’, American Journal of Sociology, 70 (2): 13758

 

 

 

Week 3:

 

The Freuds and others: Psychoanalytic Perspectives

VisUal

 

In this week’s session we will focus on psychoanalytic ideas (sometimes referred to as ‘psychodynamic’ ideas – the terms are often used fairly interchangeably).  Psychoanalysis is a controversial field that arouses very strong passions – both pro and anti. As a trained psychotherapist myself, I come somewhere in the middle, being a great admirer of the insights that psychoanalytic thinking can bring, whilst also being critical of at least some psychoanalytic practice, and also of the more misogynistic aspects of Freud’s original theory. Yet one only has to just mention the names of Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Susan Isaacs, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby (amongst many others) to see what a massive influence these towering figures have had on our understandings of early childhood and young children’s experience. This is a truly vast field of ideas (including, for example, a concern with internal psychic conflict (and ‘neurosis’), anxiety, the ‘unconscious’, play, love and hate, attachment, envy and jealousy, destructiveness, the instincts, dreams and reverie… — and so on!

     We really need a whole module to do justice to these ideas and theorists; however, my intention will be to leave you with enough information about psychoanalytic approaches to understanding early childhood to know whether this is an approach which you would wish to pursue in the future. For those of you who wish to pursue these ideas, by far the best introductory text I know of is Alessandra Lemma’s outstanding book Invitation to Psychodynamic Psychology  (Whurr/Wiley, 1995) – thankfully there are five copies in the library (at 616.8914/LEM). And a ‘health warning’… – if you read this book, it may change your whole way of thinking about human relationships, and what makes us all ‘tick’, for ever! It will certainly give you new ways of thinking about early child development.

     It’s important to notice, finally, that I’ve sneaked in the word ‘love’, both above and in the readings (e.g. see Gerhardt’s work). This is crucial, as I am constantly amazed (and appalled) by what I see as the ‘politically correct’ (or is it fear-driven?) reluctance to speak about love in academic (and sometimes even in professional/practitioner) conversations on early childhood. John Bowlby’s classic text Child Care and the Growth of Love is certainly aptly titled; and psychoanalytic theory has a great deal to say about love (and hate), and their vicissitudes (especially in the work of Melanie Klein and Donald Winnicott). Sue Gerhardt’s important work is certainly an excellent way into these vital issues.

 

Set readings (it’s probably best to read these in the order as numbered below; please note that I’m aware there is a lot of reading here, and I’m not necessarily expecting you to have read all these readings before the lecture)

 

1.      House, R. (2011) ‘Psychoanalytic ideas for early childhood’, The Mother magazine, 45 (March–April): 30–2 (<<see original article on LN)

2.      Manning-Morton, J. (2011) ‘Not just the tip of the iceberg: psychoanalytic ideas and early years practice’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 2137;  Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL (<<to be uploaded as a pdf)

3.      Collona, A.B.. (1998) ‘Anna Freud and the social-moral development of young children’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 66–86 (Lib. ref.: on order) (<<to be uploaded as a pdf)

4.      Elfer, P. (2007) ‘Babies and young children in nurseries: using psychoanalytic ideas to explore tasks and interactions’, Children and Society, 21, pp. 111–22; <<this paper is available through your Athens/e-journals log-in

5.      House, R. (2011) ‘Donald Winnicott’s contribution to understanding children and parenting’, The Mother magazine, 47 (July–Aug): 30–2 (<<see original article on LN)

6.      House, R. (2011) ‘Perennial wisdom on early childhood, I: The work and contribution of Susan Isaacs, 1885–1948’, The Mother magazine, 46 (May–June): 34–6 (<<see original article on LN)

 

 

Additional Reading

Atkinson, T. and Claxton, G. (eds) (2000) The Intuitive Practitioner: On the Value of Not Always Knowing what One Is Doing, Buckingham: Open University Press

Britzman, D.P. (2003a) ‘Why return to Anna Freud?’, in her After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning, Albany, NY: SUNY Press, pp. 71–95

Britzman, D.P. (2003b) ‘Theory Kindergarten’, in her After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning, Albany, NY: SUNY Press, pp. 125–48

Britzman, D.P. (2009) The Very Thought of Education: Psychoanalysis and the Impossible Professions, Albany, NY: SUNY Press

Bowlby, J. (1990) Childcare and the Growth of Love, 2nd edn, London: Penguin (orig. 1953)

Claxton, G. (1997a) Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases when You Think Less, London: Fourth Estate

Claxton, G. (1997b) ‘Premature articulation: how thinking gets in the way of learning’, in his Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases when You Think Less, London: Fourth Estate, pp. 28–47

Claxton, G. (1997c) ‘Thinking too much? Reason and intuition as antagonists and allies’, in his Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases when You Think Less, London: Fourth Estate, pp. 85–99

Claxton, G. (1997d) ‘Perception without consciousness’, in his Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases when You Think Less, London: Fourth Estate, pp. 100–15

Corrigan, E.G. and Gordon, P.-E. (eds) (1985) The Mind Object: Precocity and Pathology of Self-sufficiency, Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson

Cortino, M. and Marrone, M. (eds) (2003) Attachment Theory and the Psychoanalytic Process, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell

Davis, M. and Wallbridge, D. (1983) Boundary and Space: Introduction to the Work of D.W. Winnicott, Harmondsworth: Penguin

Davou, B. (2002) ‘Unconscious processes influencing learning’, Psychodynamic Practice, 8 (3): 277–94

Diem-Wille, G. (2011) The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein, and Bion, London: Karnac Books

Dockar-drysdale, B. (1990) The Provision of Primary Experience: Winnicottian Work with Children and Adolescents, London: Free Association Books

Dover, J. (2002) ‘The child who cannot bear being taught’, Psychodynamic Practice, 8 (3): 311–25

Elfer, P. and Dearnley, K. (2007) ‘Nurseries and emotional well-being: evaluating an emotionally containing model of professional development’, Early Years, 27 (3), pp. 267–79

Emanuel, R. (1998) ‘The-child-in-the-family-in-the-nursery’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 4365 

Emanuel, R. (2000) Anxiety, Cambridge: Icon Books

Freud, A. and Burlingham, D.T. (1947) Infants without Families: The Case against Residential Nurseries, 2nd edn, New York: International Universities Press

Freud, A. (1949) ‘Nursery school education: its uses and dangers’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, 1998, pp. 8793

Gardner, D.E.M. (1969) Susan Isaacs, London: Methuen

Gerhardt, S. (2004) Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby’s Brain, London: Brunner Routledge (Lib ref.: available electronically – ebook)

Gerhardt, S. (2004) ‘Why love matters in early childhood’, in R. House and Del Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos (co-edited with Del Loewenthal), Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 113–26 (Lib ref.: 155.4/HOU; Richard can email you a copy of this chapter)

Goldberg, S. (2000) Attachment and Development: An Integrative Approach, London: Arnold/Hodder Education

Graham, P. (2008a) Susan Isaacs: A Life Freeing the Minds of Children, London: Karnac Books

Graham, P. (2008) ‘Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School’, Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 34 (1): 522

Green, A. (2005) Play and Reflection in Donald Winnicott's Writing, London: Karnac Books

Greenwood, A. (2002) ‘The child who cannot bear to feel’, Psychodynamic Practice, 8 (3): 295–310

Hanko, G. (2002) ‘Making psychodynamic insights accessible to teachers as an integral part of their professional task’, Psychodynamic Practice, 8 (3): 375–89

Heard, D. and Lake, B. (1997) The Challenge of Attachment for Caregiving, London: Routledge

Hindle, D. and Vaciago Smith, M. (eds) (1999) Personality Development: A Psychoanalytic Perspective, London: Routledge

Hinshelwood, R. (2001) ‘Susan Isaacs’, in J.A. Palmer (ed.), Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present Day, London: Routledge, pp. 610

Hoffer, W. (1981a) Early Development and Education of the Child, London: Hogarth Press

Hoffer, W. (1981b) ‘The psychoanalytic approach to education’, in his Early Development and Education of the Child, London: Hogarth Press, pp. 191206

Holmes, J. (1993) John Bowlby and Attachment Theory, London: Routledge

Hopkins, J. (1990) ‘From baby games to let’s pretend: the achievement of playing’, in B. Kahr (ed.), The Legacy of Winnicott: Essays on Infant and Child Mental Health, London: Karnac Books, pp. 919

House, R. (2009) ‘The mind object and “dream consciousness”: a Winnicottian and a Steinerean rationale for challenging the premature “adultisation” of children’, in R. House and Del Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, pp. 155–69 (Richard can email you a copy of this chapter)

Isaacs, S. (1930) Intellectual Growth in Young Children, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Isaacs, S. (1932) The Nursery Years: The Mind of the Child from Birth to Six Years, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Isaacs, S. (1933) Social Development in Young Children: A Study of Beginnings, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul

Isaacs, S. (1935) The Psychological Aspects of Child Development, London: Evans, with the Inst of Education

Isaacs, S. (1948) Troubles with Children and Parents, London: Methuen

Jaques, E. (1955) ‘Social systems as a defence against persecutory and depressive anxiety’, In M. Klein, P. Heimann and R.E. Money-Kyrle (eds), New Directions in Psycho-Analysis, London: Tavistock Publications, pp. 478–98

Jones, R. (1960) An Application of Psychoanalysis to Education, Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas

Kahr, B. (ed.) (2002) The Legacy of Winnicott: Essays on Infant and Child Mental Health, London: Karnac Books

Lawlor, D. (2009) ‘A case study in the functioning of social systems as a defence against anxiety: rereading 50 years on’, Clinical and Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14 (4): 523–30

Lemma-Wright, A. (1995) An Invitation to Psychodynamic Psychology, Chichester: Wily-Blackwell

Long, S. (2006) ‘Organizational defences against anxiety: what has happened since the 1955 Jaques paper?’, International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 3 (4): 279–95

Mayes, C. (2009) ‘The psychoanalytic view of teaching and learning, 1922–2002’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(4): 539–67

Menzies Lyth, I. (1988) Containing Anxiety in Institutions: Selected Essays, volume 1, London: Free Association Books

Midgely, N. (2008) ‘The 'Matchbox School' (19271932): Anna Freud and the idea of a “psychoanalytically informed education”’, Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 34 (1): 2342

Miller, A. (1987) The Drama of Being a Child and the Search for the True Self, London: Virago

Music, G. (2011) Nurturing Natures: Attachment and Children's Emotional, Sociocultural and Brain Development, Hove: Psychology Press

Neville, B. (1989) Educating Psyche: Emotion, Imagination and the Unconscious in Learning, Collins Dove/Harper: North Blackburn, Victoria

Oates, J. (ed.) (2007) Attachment Relationships: Quality of Care for Young Children, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, Early Childhood in Focus series, 31 (= uploaded onto your Learning Network as a pdf)

Phillips, A. (1998) ‘Learning not to talk’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 2742

Phillips, A. (1999) The Beast in the Nursery, London: Faber

Rayner, R. (1993) Human Development: An Introduction to the Psychodynamics of Growth, Maturity and Ageing, 3rd end, London: Routledge (see early-childhood-relevant chapters)

Ryce-Menuhin, J. (1988) The Self in Early Childhood, London: Free Association Books

Salzberger-Wittenberg, I., Williams and Osborne, E. (1999) The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching, London: Karnac

Saltzman, C. (2006) ‘Introducing teachers to a psychodynamically informed teaching practice’, Psychodynamic Practice, 12 (1): 67–86

Segal, J. (1992) Melanie Klein, London: Sage

Smith, L.A.H, (1985) To Understand and to Help: The Life and Work of Susan Isaacs, 1884–1948, London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press

Stern, D.B. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Development Psychology, London: Karnac Books

Stern, D. (1992) Diary of a Baby: What Your Child Sees, Feels, and Experiences, New York: Basic Books

Trowell, J. (1990) ‘The wider applications of infant observation’, in B. Kahr (ed.), The Legacy of Winnicott: Essays on Infant and Child Mental Health, London: Karnac Books, pp. 7999

Ward, I. (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education: Papers Presented at the Anna Freud Centre Centenary Conference, November 1995, London: Karnac and Freud Museum

Willan, J. (2011) ‘Susan Isaacs (1885–1948): her life, work and legacy’, Gender and Education, 23 (2): 201–10

Winnicott, D. W. (1960) ‘The theory of the parent–infant relationship’, in his The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment, New York: International Universities Press, pp. 37–55

Winnicott, D.W. (1964) The Child, the Family, and the Outside World, Harmondsworth: Penguin

Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality, Harmondsworth: Penguin

Winnicott, D.W. (1993) Talking to Parents, Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus

Winnicott, D.W. (2002) Winnicott on The Child, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press

Young-Bruehl, E. (1989) Anna Freud: A Biography, London: Macmillan

Zaphiriou Woods, M. and  Pretorius, I.-M. (eds) Parents and Toddlers in Groups: A Psychoanalytic Developmental Approach, London: Routledge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week 4

 

Foucault:  ‘Critiquing the OperatioN'

Lecture

Visual

 

The work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926–84) has had an enormous influence in the social sciences generally – and the fields of Education, and Early Childhood Studies, have also been strongly influenced by his radical and innovative thinking, as is evidenced by the reading list below. Some key theoretical terms/notions have been introduced by Foucault which are vitally important vehicles for illuminating the process and dynamics of ECE and shining a critical light upon it – for example, notions like governmentality, power-knowledge, discipline, normalisation, surveillance, the gaze, technologies of the self, and so on. We will explore these notions in this session, and their relevance to ECE.

     Early Childhood Studies has some outstanding scholars strongly influenced by Foucault, including Glenda Mac Naughton and Jayne Osgood (see references, below). And the incisive writings of the Foucauldian Nikolas Rose have also inspired a generation of critical psychologists (myself included). The work of people like Mick Power in his seminal 1997 text The Audit Society also has strong echoes of Foucault’s work.

     See also Emile’s PowerPoint and lecture notes from last year’s module. When added to my new material for this session, this is a very rich feast of Foucault and Foucault-inspired writings, which will give you a very good grounding in his ideas and their relevance to ECE.

 

 

Set readings (again, it’s probably best to read these in the order as numbered below; please note that I’m aware there is a lot of reading here, and I’m not necessarily expecting you to have read all these readings before the lecture)

 

1.                  Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and Punish, Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 17194 (<< see uploaded pdf)

 

2.         Holligan, C. (1999) ‘Discipline and normalization in the nursery: the Foucaultian gaze’, Scottish Educational Review online (http://www.scotedreview.org.uk/); available at: http://www.scotedreview.org.uk/pdf/73.pdf; and reprinted in H. Penn (ed.) (1999) Early Childhood Services: Theory, Policy, and Practice, Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 13446

 

3.                  Cohen, L.E. (2008) ‘Foucault and the early childhood classroom’, Educational Studies. 44 (1): 721 (<<available through Athens/ejournals; pdf = downloadable)

4.                  O’Neill, J. (1986) ‘The disciplinary society: from Weber to Foucault’, British Journal of Sociology, 37 (1): 42–60 (<<available through Athens/ejournals; pdf = downloadable)

McGillivray, A. (1997) ‘Governing childhood’, in A. McGillivray (ed), Governing Childhood, Aldershot: Dartmouth Publ Co, pp. 1-24 (<<see uploaded pdf)

6.                  Osgood, J. (2006a) Deconstructing professionalism in early childhood education: resisting the regulatory gaze’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 514 (you can access this paper online at this link: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=7&issue=1&year=2006&article=2_Osgood_CIEC_7_1_web)

7.                  Stuart, M. (2009) ‘Crossing the Rubicon’: strategic planning or neo-biopower? A critique of the language of New Zealand’s Early Childhood Strategic Plan’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 10 (2); freely downloadable as a pdf at: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=10&issue=2&year=2009&article=8_Stuart_CIEC_10_2_web

8.     Rose, N. (1999) ‘The young citizen’, in his Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self, London: Free Association Books, pp. 123-34

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL READING

 

Ailwood, J. (2003) ‘Governing early childhood education through play, contemporary issues in early childhood’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 4 (3); available free online at: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=4&issue=3&year=2003&article=5_Ailwood_CIEC_4_3_web

Baker, B.M. and Heyning, K.R. (eds) (2004) Dangerous Coagulations?: The Uses of Foucault in the Study of Education,  New York: Peter Lang

Ball, S. (1990) Foucault and Education, London: Routledge

Ball, S. (1999) ‘Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: towards the performative society’, unpublished paper presented as the Tate memorial lecture and keynote address to the AARE annual conference, Melbourne, 1999

Bundy, J. (2012) ‘Rendering (gender) invisible: early childhood education and care in Ontario as a biopolitical social investment apparatus’, Discourse, 33 (4): 591–605

Fendler, L. (1998) ‘What is it impossible to think? A genealogy of the educated subject’, in T.S. Popkewitz and M. Brennan (eds), Foucault’s Challenge: Discourse, Knowledge and Power in Education, Columbia University, New York: Teachers College Press, 1998, pp. 3963

Fenech, M. (2012) ‘An analysis of the conceptualisation of “quality” in early childhood education and care empirical research: promoting “blind spots” as foci for future research’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 6 (2); available online at: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/ciec/content/pdfs/12/issue12_2.asp#1

Fenech,  M., Sumsion, J. and Goodfellow, J. (2008) ‘Regulation and risk: early childhood education and care services as sites where the “laugh of Foucault” resounds’,  Journal of Education Policy, 23 (1): 35–48

Foucault, M. (1971) L’order du discourse, Paris: Gallimard

Foucault, M. (1991) Discipline and Punish, London : Penguin

Martin, L., Gutman, H. and Hutton, P. (eds) (1988) Technologies of the Self, London: Tavistock

Mac Naughtnon, G. (2005) Doing Foucault in Early Childhood Studies: Applying Post-Structural Ideas, London: Routledge

Leask, I. (2011) ‘Beyond subjection: notes on the later Foucault and education’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 44 (Supl. 1): 57–73

Millei, Z.J. (2005) ‘The discourse of control: disruption and Foucault in an early childhood classroom’,
Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 6 (2); available free online at:
http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=6&issue=2&year=2005&article=3_Millei_CIEC_6_2_web

Osgood, J. (2006a) ‘Rethinking “professionalism” in the early years: perspectives from the United Kingdom’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 14 (you can access this paper online here: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/rss/abstract.asp?j=ciec&aid=2738

Osgood, J. (2006b) ‘Professionalism and performativity: the feminist challenge facing early years practitioners’, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 26 (2): 18799; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09575140600759997

Osgood, J. (2010) Narratives from the Nursery: Negotiating Professional Identities in Early Childhood, London: Routledge

Peters, M. (2001) ‘Michel Foucault’, in J.A. Palmer (ed.), Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present, London: Routledge, pp. 1705

Polakow, V. (1992) ‘Deconstructing the discourse of care: young children in the shadows of democracy’, in S.A. Kessler and B.B. Swadener (eds), Reconcepualizing the Early Childhood Curriculum: Beginning the Dialogue, New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 12348;

Power, M. (1994) The Audit Explosion, London: Demos, pdf freely downloadable at: http://www.demos.co.uk/files/theauditexplosion.pdf

Power, M. (1997) The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification, 2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Popkewitz, T.S. and Brennan, M. (eds) (1998) Foucault’s Challenge: Discourse, Knowledge and Power in Education, Columbia University, New York: Teachers College Press

 

 

 

 

Week 5

 

Early Childhood Education and the State:

England’s Early Years Foundation Stage

 

As you will know, the original (2008) EYFS was replaced by the revised EYFS in 2012, after an extensive government consultation, and much debate and discussion across the early years sector. A very wide range of positions was evident in the field, from those who strongly support the EYFS on one side of the spectrum, to those (like the ‘Open EYE’ campaign (http://openeyecampaign.wordpress.com/) and Early Childhood Action (http://www.earlychildhoodaction.com/)) on the other side, who have vociferously challenged aspects of the EYFS from 2007 onwards (see House, 2011), and who have achieved substantial media coverage for their concerns since late 2007. In this session we will look in detail at the EYFS – at the original EYFS of 2008, at the Tickell Review that reviewed the original framework, at the government’s response to its own consultation post-Tickell, and finally to the resultant revised EYFS of September 2012. As a case study we will look at the thorny and controversial issue of exemptions from the EYFS – the campaign to seek them, and notable recent successes in this regard. We will also watch, and then discuss, the Open EYE film ‘Too Much Too Soon’ of July 2008 (viewable online at: http://openeyecampaign.wordpress.com/?s=exemptions).

 

 

Set readings (again, I’m not necessarily expecting you to have read all these readings before the lecture; but it is essential that you read the revised EYFS documentation carefully and critically)

 

Department for Education (2012) The Early Years Foundation Stage (various documents); all downloadable free as pdfs from: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/a0068102/early-years-foundation-stage-eyfs

 

Duffy, B. (2010) ‘The early years curriculum’, in G. Pugh and B. Duffy (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, 5th edn, London: Sage, pp. 95108

House, R. (2011) ‘A Critical Commentary on Reforming the Early Years Foundation Stage (the EYFS): Government Response to Consultation’, December: mimeo (see file uploaded on to LN); shorter version in Nursery World, 10 January 2012, ‘Why the plans for EYFS reform don't make the grade’,  downloadable at: http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/1111210/Why-I-believe-plans-EYFS-reform-dont-grade/?DCMP=ILC-SEARCH

Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (2012) ‘Critical perspectives on early years policy’, in L. Miller and D. Hevey (eds), Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 19 (see uploaded pdf; Lib. ref.: on order)

Open EYE Campaign (2011) ‘The Tickell Review of the Early Years Foundation Stage: an “Open EYE” dialogue’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 36–44 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (uploaded on to LN; Richard can also email you a copy on request)

Staggs, L. (2011) ‘The rhetoric and reality of a national strategy on early education and assessment’, in L. Miller and D. Hevey (eds), Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 139–52 (Lib. Ref.: on order at 14/1/13)

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL READING  [please note that I’ve included pre-2008 literature on the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage, as it’s very useful and important to understand where, historically, the EYFS came from]

 

Basford, J. and Hodson, E. (2008) Teaching Early Years Foundation Stage, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib. ref.: 372.216/BAS

Beckley, P., Elvidge, K. and Hendry, H. (2009) Implementing the Early Years Foundation Stage: A Handbook, Maidenhead, Berks: Open University Press; Lib. ref.: 372.216/BEC

Cameron, C. (2003) ‘An historical perspective on changing childcare policy’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 8095; Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA

Canning, N. (2010) Play and Practice in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Sage

Dougherty, J. (2011) ‘Against the government’s grain: the experience of forging a path to EYFS exemption’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 45–56 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (Richard can email you a copy on request)

Edgington, M., House, R., Oldfield, L. and Palmer, S. (2011) ‘Challenging government policy-making for the early years: early Open EYE contributions’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 36–44 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (Richard can email you a copy on request)

Gaunt, C. (2012) ‘Private schools will be able to opt out of the EYFS’, Nursery World, 3 October; available online at: http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/1153179/Private-schools-will-able-opt-EYFS/?DCMP=ILC-SEARCH

Glazzard, J., Chadwick, D., Webster, A. and Percival, J. (2010) Assessment for Learning in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Sage

Hamilton, C. (2003) Principles and Practice in the Foundation Stage, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib. ref.: 372.216/HAM (oversize)

House, R. (ed.) (2011a) Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press; Lib Ref.:  372.21/HOU

Hutchin, V. (2012) Assessing and Supporting Young Children's Learning: for the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile, London: Hodder Education

Kwon, Y.-I. (2002) ‘Changing curriculum for early childhood education in England’, Early Childhood Research and Practice, 14 (1): downloadable at: http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n2/kwon.html

May, P. (2008) Creative Development in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Routledge

Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (eds) (2012) Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage; Lib. ref.: on order

OECD (2001) Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD Publishing, 214pp;  Lib. Ref.: on order

OECD (2006) Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care, Part 2, Paris: OECD Publishing, 441pp;  Lib. Ref.: on order

OECD (2012) Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD Publishing, 372pp; Lib. Ref.: on order

Palaiologou, I. (2013) The Early Years Foundation Stage: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn, London: Sage; Lib. Ref.: on order (1st edn at 372.216/PAL)

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority /DfEE (2000) Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage, London: HMSO; Lib Ref.:  372/QCA (Oversize)

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (2003) Foundation Stage Profile: Handbook, London: Dept for Education and Skills; Lib. ref.: 372.216/QCA (oversize)

Sheppy, S. (2008) Personal, Social and Emotional Development in the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Routledge

Smidt, S. (2009) Planning for the Early Years Foundation Stage, London: Routledge

Reed, M. and Canning, M. (2010) Reflective Practice in the Early Years, London: Sage; Lib. ref.: 372,216.REE

Scott, W. and House, R. (2011) ‘Towards the future: implications and recommendations for educationalists and policy-makers’  in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 323–33 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (Richard can email you a copy on request)

Sheerman, B. (2011) ‘Early childhood: a policy-making perspective’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 316–22 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (Richard can email you a copy on request)

Wilcock, L. (2012) The Early Years Foundation Stage in Practice, 2nd edn, London: Practical Preschool Books; Lib. ref.: on order; 1st edn, 2007, at 372.21/WIL

Wilcock, L. and Hughes, C. (2007) The Early Years Foundation Stage in Practice, London: Step Forward; Lib. ref.: 372.21/WIL

Williams, J. (2005) Planning and Using Time in the Foundation Stage, London: David Fulton; Lib. ref.: 372.21/WIL

 

 

 

 

 

Week 6

 

Essays and Presentations Preparation

Visual

 

In this session we may spend some time at the beginning completing our discussions of the revised EYFS and the profile.

     We will then look at the themes that those doing group presentations have chosen, and there will also be space for us to discuss essays. In both cases, there will be the opportunity to ask general/generic questions, and also to ask quite specific and detailed questions about individual essays. We’ll start the session by dividing up into groups of five, and each group having 15–20 minutes discussing the essay, their process and any difficulties they’ve been having. Then we’ll broaden this out into a whole-group plenary session, part of which will be a brief presentation on what I see as the key aspects of this essay.

 

 

 

WEEK 7:

 

FRIEDRICH FROEBEL (1782–1852):

Early Pioneer, Founder of the Kindergarten (‘Children’s Garden)

Visuals

 

Friedrich Froebel was a German pedagogue and student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern approach to education that explicitly recognised children’s unique needs and capabilities. He created the concept of the ‘kindergarten’,  and develped educational toys known as Froebel Gifts. Although in Britain an explicitly Froebelian approach to early education was lost in the 1960s and early 1970s (which historical event is itself fascinating in many respects), the influence of Froebel’s ideas lives on, as we will explore in this session.

 

 

SET READINGS

Froebel, F. (1887) The Education of Man, Appleton: New York and London, pp. 59–71

 

Bruce, T. (2012) ‘The whole child’, in T. Bruce (ed.), Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage, pp. 5–16 (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

 

Heiland, H (1993) ‘Friedrich Froebel, 1782–1852’, originally published in Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), Vol. 23 (3–4): 473–91; reproducible free of charge with acknowledgement (see pdf)

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL Reading

Adelman, C. (2000) ‘Over two years, what did Froebel say to Pestalozzi?’, History of Education, 29 (2): 103–14

Bowen, H.C. (1893) ‘The Kindergarten – the general nature of its processes – gifts and occupations’, in Froebel and Education by Self-activity, London: Heinemann, pp. 124–51; Lib. ref.: 370.1/BOW

Brehony, K.J. (2009) ‘Transforming theories of childhood and early childhood education: child study and the empirical assault on Froebelian rationalism’, Paedagogica Historica, 45 (4–5): 585–604

Bruce, T., Findlay, A., Read, J. and Scarborough, M. (1995) Recurring Themes in Education, London: Paul Chapman; Lib. ref.: 370.1/BRU

Bruce, T. (2005) Early Childhood Education, 4thedn, London: Hodder Arnold,  pp. 17–36 passim; 372.216/BRU

Bruce, T. (2012a) Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

Bruce, T. (2012b) ‘Froebel today ’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 5570; Lib. ref.: 372.21/MIL

Bruce, T. (2012c) ‘Family, community and the wider world’, in T. Bruce (ed.), Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage, pp. 17–28 (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

Bruce, T. (2012d) ‘Bringing together Froebelian principles and practices’, in T. Bruce (ed.), Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage, pp. 155–60 (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

Courtehope-Bowen, H. (1893a) ‘The kindergarten – the general features of its processes: gifts and occupations’, in Froebel and Education by Self-Activity, London: Heinemann, Chapter 7; Lib. ref.: 370.1/BOW

Courtehope-Bowen, H. (1893b) Froebel and Education by Self-Activity, London: William Heinneman; Lib. ref.: 370.1/BOW

Curtis, S. and Boultwood, M. (1953) A Short History of Educational Ideas, London: University Tutorial Press, pp. 36881; Lib. ref.: 370.1/CUR

Froebel, F. (1896) Friedrich Froebel's Education By Development: The Second Part of the Pedagogics of the Kindergarten, New York: D. Appleton

Froebel, F. (1887) Letters on the Kindergarten, London, Swan Sonnenschein

Froebel, F. (1900a) Mother's Songs, Games and Stories, London, W. Rice

Froebel, F. (1900b) Pedagogics of the Kindergarten, London, Edward Arnold

Froebel, F. (1902) Pedagogies of the Kindergarten, New York: D. Appleton

Froebel, F. (1912) Froebel’s Chief Writings on Education, London: Arnold

Froebel, F. (1915) Autobiography of Friedrich Froebel, London: Allen and Unwin; Lib. ref: 370.92/FRO

Froebel, F. (2005) The Education of Man, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications; Lib. ref.: 370.1/FRO (orig. 1885)

Gutek, G.L. (2011) ‘Friedrich Froebel: founder of the Kindergarten’, in his Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction, 5th, London: Pearson, Chapter 16 (on order, library)

Hanschmann, A.B. and Franks, F. (1904) The Kindergarten System: Its Origin and Development as Seen in the Life of Friedrich Froebel, 2ndedn, London : Swan Sonnenschein; Lib. ref: 370.92/FRO

Hughes, J.L. (1897a) Froebel's Educational Laws for All Teachers, New York: London: Appleton; Lib ref.: 370.1/HUG

Hughes, J. (1897b) ‘The harmony between control and spontaneity’, in Froebel’s Educational Laws for all Teachers, London: Appleton, Chapter 6; Lib. ref.: 370.1/HUG

Hughes, J. (1897c) ‘Forbel’s Fundamental Law: unity or inner connection’, in Froebel’s Educational Laws for all Teachers, New York: Appleton; Lib. ref.: 370.1/HUG

Hughes, J. (1897d) ‘The distinctive characteristics of Froebel’s system’, in Froebel’s Educational Laws for all Teachers, New York: Appleton; Lib. ref.: 370.1/HUG

Lawrence, E. 1969) Friedrich Froebel and English Education: Essays by P. Woodham-Smith and Others, London: Routledge; Lib. ref: 370.1/LAW

Liebschner, J. (1991) Foundations of Progressive Education: The History of the National Froebel Society, Cambridge: Lutterworth; Lib. ref: 370.1/LIE

Liebschner, J. (12001) A Child's Work: Freedom and Practice in Froebel's Educational Theory and Practice, 2ndedn, Cambridge: Lutterworth; Lib. ref: 370.1/LIE

Lilley, I.M (1967) Friedrich Froebel: A Selection for his Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge: University Press; Lib. ref: 370.1/FRO

McNair, L. (2012) ‘Offering children first-hand experiences through forest school: relating to and learning about nature’, in T. Bruce (ed.), Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage, pp. 57–68 (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

Manning, J.P. (2005) ‘Rediscovering Froebel: a call to re-examine his life and gifts’, Early Childhood Education Journal, 32 (6): 371–6

Polito, T. (1995) ‘Frederick Froebel's illuminations on kindergarten children's relatedness to nature’, Education, 116 (2): 223–8

Pound, L. (2011) ‘Friedrich Froebel, 1782–1852‘, in her Influencing Early Childhood Education: Key Figures, Philosophies and Ideas, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 1218; Lib. ref: 372.21/POU

Priestman, B. (1952) Froebel Education Today, London: University of London Press;Lib. ref: 372/PRI

Read, J. (2012) ‘The time-honoured Froebelian tradition of learning out of doors’, in T. Bruce (ed.), Early Childhood Practice: Froebel Today, London: Sage, pp. 69–80 (Lib. ref.: 372.21/BRU)

Rusk, R. (1962) The Doctrines of the Great Educators, London: Holt Rinehart Wilson, Chapter 11; Lib. ref.: 370.1/RUS

Tovey, H. (2010) Bringing the Froebel Approach to your Early Years Practice, London: Routledge (on order)

Walsh, D.J., Chung, S. and Tufekci, A. (2001) ‘Friedrich Wilhelm Froebel, 1782–1852‘, in J.A. Palmer (ed.), Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey, London: Routledge, pp. 94–9; Lib. ref: 370.1/PAL

White, J. (1907) The Educational Ideas of Froebel, London: University Tutorial Press

Woodham-Smith, P. and Lawrence, E. (1952) Friedrich Froebel and English Education, London: University of London Press; Lib. ref: 370.1/LAW

 

 

 

 

Week 8:

 

Visual for FROEBEL PART II & Steiner

Lecture: Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925):

Educationalist of the spirit within the evolution of human consciousness

 

The Steiner Waldorf schooling system is the world’s largest independent educational movement, with schools and early years settings (Kindergartens and Parent & Child Groups) on every continent and in most countries across the globe. The pedagogy is built upon the many indications and insights offered by the Austrian philosopher, educationalist and spiritual teacher Rudolf Steiner, and his spiritual cosmology known as Anthroposophy (meaning ‘awareness of one’s humanity’). The education has many distinctive features: it is for all children irrespective of academic ability, class, ethnicity or religion; it takes account of the needs of the whole child – academic, physical, emotional and spiritual; it is based on an understanding of the relevance of the different phases of child development; it seeks to develops a love of learning and an enthusiasm for school; and it sees artistic activity and the development of the imagination as integral to learning. It has a very particular approach to early childhood, which we will explore in depth.

 

SET READINGS

Steiner, R. (1924) The Kingdom of Childhood: Lecture 2, 13 August; available online at: http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/GA311/English/AP1982/19240813v01.html; in book form>> Steiner, R. (1995) The Kingdom of Childhood: Seven Lectures and Answers to Questions Given in Torquay, August 12–20, 1924, Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

 

Steiner, R. (1996) Lecture 2 in his The Child's Changing Consciousness: as the Basis of Pedagogical Practice, Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

 

Nicol, J. and Taplin, J. (2012) ‘Key pedagogical principles’, in their Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice, London: Routledge, pp. 1328; Lib. ref.: 372.216/NIC

 

Ullrich, H. (1994) ‘Rudolf Steiner, 1861–1925’, originally published in Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), Vol. 24 (3–4): 555–72; reproducible free of charge with acknowledgement (see pdf)

 

TO DIP INTO IF INTERESTED:

Woods, P., Ashley, M. and Woods, G. (2005) Steiner Schools in England, Research Report 645, Department for Education and Skills; Centre for Research in Education and Democracy, University of the West of England (freely downloadable at:  https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR645.pdf)

 

 

ADDITIONAL READING

 

Baldwin Dancey, R. (2006) You are your Child's First Teacher: What Parents Can Do with and for Their Children from Birth to Age Six, 3rd edn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press

Carlgren, F. (2008) Education Towards Freedom: Rudolf Steiner Education - A Survey of the Work of Waldorf Schools Throughout the World, 3rd edn, Edinburgh: Floris Books

Childs, G. (1991) Steiner Education in Theory and Practice: A Guide to Rudolf Steiner’s Educational Principles, Edinburgh: Floris Books; Lib. ref.: 370.1/CHI

Childs, G. (1996) Rudolf Steiner: His Life and Work, London: Steiner Books

Clouder, C. (ed.) (2003) Rudolf SteinerEducation: An Introductory Reader, London: Rudolf Steiner Press

Clouder, C. and Rawson, M. (2003) Waldorf Education, Edinburgh: Floris Books; Lib. ref.: 370.1/CHI

Drummond, M.-J. (1999) ‘Another way of seeing: perceptions of play in a Steiner Kindergarten’, in L. Abbott and H. Moylett (eds) Early Education Transformed, London: Falmer Press, pp. 48–60;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/ABB

Edmunds, F. (2004) An Introduction to Steiner Education: The Waldorf School, revised edn, London: Rudolf Steiner Press

Goral, M. (2009) Transformational Teaching: Waldorf-inspired Methods in the Public School, Forest Row : Rudolf Steiner Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/GOR

House, R. (2000) ‘The Whistleblowers: Dr Rudolf Steiner, 1861–1925’, Education Now: News and Review, 30 (Winter), 2000, p. 3; reprinted in P. Stanbrook (ed.), The Whistleblowers, Nottingham: Education Now Publishing, 2002; and in The Mother magazine, 5, 2003: 46–7 (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2001) ‘Freedom without chaos: the Steiner Parent and Child Group’, Appendix 2 in Lynne Oldfield’s Free to Learn: Introducing Steiner Waldorf Early Childhood Education, 1st edn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, 2001, pp. 186–93; Lib. ref.: 372.216/OLD (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2006) ‘Beyond materialistic education: Steiner (Waldorf) education for the evolution of human consciousness’, in V.  Nolan and G. Darby (eds),  Reinventing Education: A Thought Experiment…, Stoke Mandeville, Aylesbury: Synectics Education Initiative, pp. 123–34 (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2008) ‘Gentle beginnings: The distinctive features of Steiner (Waldorf) early years settings’, Nursery Management Today, 7 (4) (July–August): 42–3 (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2009) ‘Trailing clouds of glory: protecting dream consciousness in young children’, The Mother magazine, 33 (March–April): 36–7 (available from Richard on request in a pdf)

Jaffke, F. (1996) Work and Play in Early Childhood, Edinburgh: Floris Books (on order)

Lievegoed, B. (2005) Phases of Childhood: Growing in Body, Soul and Spirit, 3rd edn, Edinburgh: Floris Books

McDermott, (ed.) (2010) The New Essential Steiner: An Introduction to Rudolf Steiner for the 21st Century, Great Barrington, Mass.: Lindisfarne Books; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Male, D. (2005) The Parent and Child Group Handbook: A Steiner / Waldorf Approach, Stroud: Hawthorn Press (on order)

Masters, B. (2007) Steiner Educational and Social Issues: How Waldorf Schooling Addresses the Problems of Society, London: Rudolf Steiner Press

Nicol, J. (2010) Bringing the Steiner Waldorf Approach to Your Early Years Practice, London: Routledge (on order)

Nicol, J. and Taplin, J. (2012) Understanding the Steiner Waldorf Approach: Early Years Education in Practice, London: Routledge; Lib. ref.: 372.216/NIC

Nutbrown, C. (2001) ‘Preface’, in L. Oldfield, Free to Learn: Introducing Steiner Waldorf Early Childhood Education, 1st edn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press; Lib. ref.: 372.216/OLD

Oldfield, L. (2001) Free to Learn: Introducing Steiner Waldorf Early Childhood Education, 2nd edn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press (first edn, 2001, at: Lib. ref.: 372.216/OLD)

Parker-Rees, R. (ed.) (2011) Meeting the Child in Steiner Kindergartens: An Exploration of Beliefs, Values and Practices, London: Routledge; Lib. ref.: 372.218/PAR

Petrash, J. (2000) Understanding Waldorf Education: Teaching from the Inside Out, Beltsville, MD: Gryphon Press

Rawson, M. and Rose, M. (2006) Ready to Learn: From Birth to School Readiness, Stroud: Hawthorn Press; Lib. ref.: 372.216/RAW

Steiner, R. (1968) The Essentials of Education: Five Lectures Delivered During the Educational Conference at the Waldorf School, Stuttgart, 8–12 1924, 3rd edn, London: Rudolf Steiner Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. [1907](1996) The Education of the Child in the Light of Spiritual Science: The Education of the Child and Early Lectures on Education Gt Barrington Mass.: Anthroposphic Press

Steiner, R. (1996) The Education of the Child and Early Lectures on Education, Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press

Steiner, R. (1997) The Roots of Education: Five Lectures Given in Berne, April 13th to 17th 1924, Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (1965) The Education of the Child in the Light of Anthroposophy, London: Rudolf Steiner Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (1972) A Modern [New] Art of Education: Fourteen Lectures Given in Ilkley, Yorkshire, 5–17 August 1923, London : Rudolf Steiner Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (1984) Education as a Social Problem: Six Lectures, Dornach, 9–17 August 1919; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (1996) The Child's Changing Consciousness: as the Basis of Pedagogical Practice, Hudson, NY: Anthroposophic Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (2004a) The Spiritual Ground of Education, Great Barrington, Mass.; Anthroposophic Press; Lib. ref.: 370.1/STE

Steiner, R. (2004b) Human Values in Education: 10 Lectures in Arnheim, Holland, 17–24 July 1924; Lib. ref.: 371.39/STE

Von Heydebrand, C. and Harwood, D. (1970) Childhood: A Study of the Growing Soul, London : Rudolf Steiner Press; Lib. ref.: 370.15/HEY

Woods, P., Ashley, M. and Woods, G. (2005) Steiner Schools in England, Research Report 645, Department for Education and Skills; Centre for Research in Education and Democracy, Faculty of Education, University of the West of England (freely downloadable at:  https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR645.pdf)

 

Note: Many original Steiner texts are available free online from the Steiner Archive, as are summaries of many of his many education lectures; see:  http://www.rsarchive.org/Search.php

 

 

 

 

 

Week 9:

 

Maria montessori (1870–1952):

Founder of Montessori education and advocate of ‘scientific pedagogy’

 

Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, educator and humanitarian, best known for her distinctive educational approach and writings on scientific pedagogy. As with Steiner education, her educational approach is in widespread use today in public and private schools across the world. Heavily influenced by Froebel and Pestalozzi, her first work was with mentally disabled children, training children in basic physical activities and sensory development. In her ‘scientific pedagogy’, as well as observation and measurement of students she advocated the development of new methods which would transform them. For her, education itself should be transformed by science. Montessori systematically developed her pedagogy and model of human development as she expanded her work, extending it to older children, and she saw human behavior as guided by universal, innate characteristics in human psychology.

 

 

SET READINGS

Montessori, M. (1988) ‘The child’s conquest of independence’, in her The Absorbent Mind, Oxford: Clio, Chapter 8; Lib. ref: 155.418/MON

 

Gutek, G.L. (2011) ‘Maria Montessori: Proponent of Early Childhood Education, in his Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction, 5th, London: Pearson, Chapter 21 (on order, library)

Rohrs, H. (1994) ‘Maria Montessori, 1870–1952’, originally published in Prsopects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education (Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), Vol. 24 (1–2): 169–83; reproducible free of charge with acknowledgement (see pdf)

 

Additional reading

 

Bradley, M. and others (2011) ‘Maria Montessori in the United Kingdom: 100 years on’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 71–85; Lib. ref.: 372.21/MIL

Bruce, T. (2005) Early Childhood Education, 4thedn, London: Hodder Arnold,  pp. 17–36 passim; 372.216/BRU

Culverwell, E.P. (1913) The Montessori Principles and Practice, London: Bell; Lib. ref.: 370.1/CUL

Hainstock, E.G. (1997) The Essential Montessori: An Introduction to the Woman, the Writings, the Method, and the Movement, revised edn, New York, NY : Plume; Lib. ref.: 371.1/HAI

Isaacs, B. (2010) Bringing the Montessori Approach to your Early Years Practice, 2nd edn, London: Routledge

Isaacs, B. (2012) Understanding the Montessori Approach: Early Years Education in Practice, London: Routledge

Kramer, R. (1978) Maria Montessori: A Biography, Oxford: Blackwell; Lib. ref.: 370.92/KRA

Lillard, P.P. (1972) Montessori: A Modern Approach, New York: Schocken; Lib. ref.: 371.392/LIL

Lillard, A. and Quest, E. (2006) ‘The early years: Evaluating Montessori education’, Science, 313 (29 September): 1893–4

Lopataa, C., Wallaceb, N.V. and Finn, K.V. (2005) ‘Comparison of academic achievement between Montessori and traditional education programs’, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20 (1): 5–13

Martin, J.R. (2001) ‘Maria Montessori, 1870–1952‘, in J.A. Palmer (ed.), Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey, London: Routledge, pp. 224–9; Lib. ref: 370.1/PAL

Montessori, M. (1919) The Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in 'The Children's Houses', London Heinemann; Lib. ref.: 370.1/MON

Montessori, M. (1948) To Educate the Human Potential, Oxford: ABC-Clio

Montessori, M. (1965) Dr Montessori's Own Handbook, New York : Schocken; Lib. ref: 370.1/MON

Montessori, M. (1972) The Discovery of the Child, New York : Ballantine Books; Lib. ref: 371.392/MON

Montessori, M. (1983) The Secret of Childhood, London: Sangam; Lib. ref: 371.392/MON

Montessori, M. (1988) The Absorbent Mind, Oxford: Clio; Lib. ref: 155.418/MON

Montessori, M. (1989) Education for a New World, Oxford: Clio; Lib. ref: 371.392/MON

Montessori, M. (1992) Education and Peace, Oxford: Clio; Lib. ref: 371.392/MON

Montessori, M. (1994) From Childhood to Adolescence: Including Erdkinder and The function of the University, Oxford: Clio; Lib. ref: 155.4/MON

Montessori, M. (1995) Advanced Montessori Method; Vol.2, Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to the Education of Children from Seven to Eleven Years, Oxford; Clio; Lib. ref: 372.1/MON

Montessori Schools Association/DCSF (2008) Guide to the EYFS in Montessori Settings, London: Montessori St Nicholas/DCSF

O’Donnell, M. (2013) Maria Montessori: A Critical Introduction to Key Themes and Debates, London: Bloomsbury Academic; Lib. ref: 370.92/MON

Pound, L. (2011) ‘Maria Montessori, 1870–1952‘, in her Influencing Early Childhood Education: Key Figures, Philosophies and Ideas, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 42–6; Lib. ref: 372.21/POU

Rindskopf Dohrmanna, K., Nishidab, T.K., Gartnerc, A., Kerzner Lipskyc, D. and Grimmd, K.J. (2007) ‘High school outcomes for students in a public Montessori program’, Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22 (2): 205–17

Standing, E.M. (1998) Maria Montessori, Her Life and Work, New York : Plume; Lib. ref.: 370.92/MON

 

 

 

Week 10:

 

LORIS Malaguzzi (1920–94):

Founder of the northern Italian Reggio Emilia approacH

 

Combined notes for weeks 10 and 11

 

Emerging from the pedagogical insights of Loris Malaguzzi is the world renowned Reggio Emilia approach, an educational philosophy focused on pre- and primary school and  derveloped with the parents of the villages around Reggio Emilia in northern Italy.after 1945. The educational programme is based on the principles of respect, responsibility and community through exploration and discovery in a supportive and enriching environment based on the interests of the children, through a self-guided curriculum, and the approach has been ‘adopted’ by many progressive, even ‘postmodern’ educators in recent years.

 

SET READINGS

 

Malaguzzi, L. (1998) ‘History, ideas and basic philosophy: an Interview with Lella Gandini’, in C. Edwards,  L. Gandini  and G. Forman (eds), The Hundred languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Approach – Advanced Reflections, 2nd edn, Greenwich, CT: Ablex, pp. 49–97; Lib. ref.: 372.21/EDW

 

Smidt, S. (2012) ‘The life and times of Lorias Malaguzzi’, in her Introducing Malaguzzi: Exploring the Life and Work of Reggio Emilia's Founding Father, London: Routledge, pp. 4–20; on order

 

 

 

 

Additional READING

 

Abbott, L. and Nutbrown, C. (eds) (2001) Experiencing Reggio Emilia: Implications for Pre-school Provision, Buckingham: Open University Press; Lib. ref: 372.216/ABB

Allen, S. and Gordon, P. (2011) ‘Malaguzzi’, in their How Children Learn 4: Thinking on Special Educational Needs and Inclusion, London: Practical Pre-School Books, pp. 31–4

Baji Rankin, B. (2004) ‘The importance of intentional socialization among children in small groups: a conversation with Loris Malaguzzi’, Early Childhood Education Journal, 32 (2): 81–5

Boyd Cadwell, L. (1997) Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education, New York: Teachers' College Press

Browne, N. (2004) 'The appeal of new pedagogies', in her Gender Equity in the Early Years, Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 41-59; Lib. ref: 372.216/BRO

Ceppi, G. and Zini, M. (1998) Reggio Children: Children, Spaces, Relations: Metaproject for an Environment for Young Children, Milan: Domus Academy Research Centre; Lib. ref.: 371.102/CEP

Dahlberg, G. (2000) 'Everything is a beginning and everything is dangerous: some reflections on the Reggio Emilia experience', in H. Penn (ed.), Early Childhood Services: Theory, Policy and Practice, Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 175–83

Dahlberg, G. and Moss, P. (2006) ‘Our Reggio Emilia’, in C. Rinaldi (ed.), In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, Researching and Learning, London: Routledge; Lib. ref.: 372.216/RIN

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007) 'The Stockholm Project: constructing a pedagogy that speaks in the voice of the child, the pedagogue and the parent', in their Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2nd edn, London: Routledge, pp. 121–43

Edwards, C. (2011) The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilia Experience in Transformation, 4th edn, Westport, CT: Praeger

Hall, K., Cunneen, M., Rosaleen, M., Ridgway, A., Cunningham, D. and Horgan, M. (2010) Loris Malaguzzi and the Reggio Emilia Experience, London: Continuum International Publishing

Hewett, V.M. (2001) ‘Examining the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education’, Early Childhood Education Journal, 29 (2): 95–100

Kim, B.S. and Farr Darling, L. (2009) ‘Monet, Malaguzzi, and the constructive conversations of preschoolers in a Reggio-inspired classroom’, Early Childhood Education Journal, 37:137–45

Lenz Taguchi, H. (2011) 'Challenging the Reggio Emilia Approach with relational materialist thinking and an ethics of potentialities' in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Stroud: Hawthorn Press, pp. 210–26 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

McCarthy, J. (1995) ‘Reggio Emilia: what is the message for early childhood education?’, Contemporary Education, 66 (3): 139–42

MacDonald, M. (2011) Review of Kathy Hall et al., Loris Malaguzzi and the Reggio Emilia Experience, Continuum, 2010, Studies in the Philosophy of Education, 30: 631–9

Moss, P. (2011) 'Early childhood education in Reggio Emilia and social pedagogy: are they related?', in C. Cameron and P. Moss (eds), Social Pedagogy and Working with Children and Young People: Where Care and Education Meet, London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 159–76

New, R.S. (2003) ‘Reggio Emilia: new ways to think about schooling’, Educational Leadership, 60 (7) (April): 34–8

Pope Edwards, C., Gandani, L. and Forman, G. (eds) (1998) The Hundred Languages of Children: Reggio Emilia Approach – Advanced Reflections, 2nd edn, New York: Ablex Publishing Corporation

Rinaldi, C. (2006) In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia: Listening, Researching and Learning, London: Routledge; Lib. ref.: 372.216/RIN

Scott, W. and Gura, P. (1997) Reflections on Early Education and Care Inspired by Visits to Reggio Emilia, Italy, London: British Association for Early Childhood Education

Smidt, S. (2012) Introducing Malaguzzi: Exploring the Life and Work of Reggio Emilia's Founding Father, London: Routledge

Soler, J. and Miller, L. (2003) ‘The struggle for early childhood curricula: a comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, Te Whäriki and Reggio Emilia’, International Journal of Early Years Education, 11 ( 1): 57–67

Thornton, L. and Brunton, P. (1990) Understanding the Reggio Approach, Dalkeith: Letts

Thornton, L. and Brunton, P. (2010) Bringing the Reggio Approach to your Early Years Practice, 2nd edn, London: Routledge (on order)

Valentine, M. (1999) Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Years Education, Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum

Vecchi, V. (2010) Art and Creativity in Reggio Emilia: Exploring the Role and Potential of Ateliers in Early Childhood Education, London: Routledge; Lib. ref.: 375.7/VEC

 

 

Week 11:

 

Recurring Themes in Early Years Theories

 

In this session we will try to start drawing together some of the common themes that have emerged from the study of four very influential early years pedagogies, with a view to seeing to what extent perennial wisdom stemming from these approaches can still have relevance to early years practice today.

 

 

SET READINGS

 

Bruce, T. (2011) ‘Ten principles of the pioneers…’, in her Early Childhood Education, 4th edn, London: Hodder, pp. 1538; Lib. ref.: 372.216/BRU

 

Platz, D. and Arellano, J. (2011) ‘Time-tested early childhood theories and practices’, Education, 132 (1): 5463

 

 

Additional READING

 

Cox, M.V. and Rowlands, A. (2011) ‘The effect of three different educational approaches on children’s drawing ability: Steiner, Montessori and traditional’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70: 485–503

Dodd-Nufrio, A.T. (2011) ‘Guest editorial: Reggio Emilia, Maria Montessori, and John Dewey: Dispelling teachers’ misconceptions and understanding theoretical foundations’, Early Childhood Education Journal, 39: 235–7

Petrie, P. (2003) ‘Social pedagogy: an historical account of care and education as social control’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 2543; Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA

Rusk, R. (1965) Doctrines of the Great Educators, London: Holt Rinehart Wilson

 

 

 

Week 12:

 

Conclusions and reconceptualisations

 

‘Reconceptualisation’ is a telling term that one finds from time to time (and perhaps increasingly) in the early years literature; and others have written extensively about the need for a fundamental ‘paradigm change’ in the field. On the basis of our studies on this module, to what extent do we agree (or not!) that a fundamental paradigm change and reconceptualisation of early education and care is indeed needed; and to the extent that it is, what form should such change take? These are the key questions we will engage with to conclude the module.

 

SET READINGS

 

Cannella, G.S. (2005) ‘Reconceptualizing the field (of early care and education): if ‘western’ child development’’ is a problem, then what do we do?’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues In Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 17–39

 

Chang, H. N.-L., Muckelroy, A. and Pulido-Tobiassen, D. and Dowell, C. (2006) ‘Redefining childcare and early education in a diverse society: dialogue and reflection’, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, 3rdedn, New York: Peter Lang (Lib Ref.: 372.216/SOT)

 

Hooper Hansen, G. (2011) ‘Education and paradigm shift’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 307–15 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

 

 

Additional READING

 

Albon, D. (2011) ‘Postmodern and post-structuralist perspectives on early childhood education’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 3852;  Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Boyden, J. (1997) ‘Childhood and the policy makers: a comparative perspective on the globalization of childhood’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 190229; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Brannen, J. and Moss, P. (2002) ‘Some thoughts on re-thinking children’s care’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss, P. (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 198–209 (Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA)

Dahlberg, G. and Moss, P. (2005) ‘Preschools as loci of ethical practice’, in their Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education, London: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 8696; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DAH

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007) ‘Theoretical perspectives: modernity and postmodernity, power and ethics’, in their Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, pp. 19–42; Lib ref.: on order at 14/1/13 (1st edn at 372.216/DAH)

Doddington, C. and Hilton, M. (2007) Child-Centred Education: Reviving the Creative Tradition, London: Sage (Lib ref.: on order)

Duffy, B. (2010) ‘The early years curriculum’, in G. Pugh and B. Duffy (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, 5th edn, London: Sage, pp. 95108; Lib Ref.: 372.216/PUG

Early Childhood Action (2012) Unhurried Pathways: A New Framework for Early Childhood, Winchester: ECA; downloadable at: http://www.earlychildhoodaction.com/docs/ECA%20EYF%20Unhurried%20Pathways.pdf

Einarsdottir, J. and Wagner, J.T (eds) (2005) Nordic Childhoods and Early Education: Philosophy, Research, Policy and Practice in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 324pp (Lib. ref.: 372.21/EIN)

Farquhar, S. and Fitzsimons, P. Philosophy of Early Childhood Education: Transforming Narratives, Oxford: Blackwell; Lib ref.: on order (also published as Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39 (3), 2008 – available online)

Gammage, P. (1999) ‘Early childhood education in the postmodern world’, in L. Abbott and H. Moylett (eds) Early Education Transformed, London: Falmer Press, pp. 417;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/ABB

Grieshaber, S.  and Cannella, G.S. (2001) ‘From identity to identities: increasing possibilities in early childhood education’, in S. Grieshaber and G.S. Cannella (eds), Embracing Identities in Early Childhood Education: Diversity and Possibilities, New York ; London : Teachers College Press, pp. 322; Lib Ref.: 372.216/GRI

Hevey, D. and Miller, L. (2012) ‘Reconceptualising policy-making in the early years‘, in L. Miller and D. Hevey (eds), Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 169–79; Lib. ref.: 372.21/MIL

Katz, L.G. (2011) ‘Current perspectives on the early childhood curriculum’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 118–30 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (2012b) ‘Critical perspectives on early years policy’, in L. Miller and D. Hevey (eds), Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 110; Lib. ref.: 372.21/MIL

Moore, R.S. and Moore, D.N. (1975) Better Late Than Early: A New Approach to Your Child's Education, New York: Reader's Digest Press; Lib. ref.: 372.21/MOO

Moss, P. (2003) ‘Getting beyond childcare: reflections on recent policy and future possibilities’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 2543; Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA

OECD (2012) Starting Strong III: A Quality Toolbox for Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD Publishing, 372pp; Lib. Ref.: on order

Osgood, J. (2010a) Narratives from the Nursery: Negotiating Professional Identities in Early Childhood, London: Routledge; Lib ref.: 372.21/OSG

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006) ‘Changing paradigms in early childhood education: critical perspectives on diversity and difference in doing social justice in early childhood education’, in their Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 123; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Sheerman, B. (2011) ‘Early childhood: a policy-making perspective’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 316–22 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Soler, J. and Miller, L. (2003) ‘The struggle for early childhood curricula: a comparison of the English Foundation Stage Curriculum, Te Whäriki and Reggio Emilia’, International Journal of Early Years Education, 11 ( 1): 57–67

Woodrow, C. and Press, F. (2007) ‘(Re)positioning the child in the policy/politics of early childhood’, Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39(3):312–25

Yelland, M. and Kilderry, A.  (2005b) ‘Postmodernism, passion and potential for future childhoods’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 243–48; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL

 

 

ASSESSMENT:

 

Essay II:

 

The second essay will be 2000–2500 words long, and must be submitted by Thursday of Assessment week 1, i.e. after Easter (= 9 May). The essay title is as follows:

 

 

 

Choosing the theories of one of our four pedagogues (i.e. Froebel, Malaguzzi, Montessori or Steiner), evaluate the extent to which the revised Early Years Foundation Stage is consistent with your chosen pedagogue’s core beliefs about early development and learning?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early childhood education:

 

general resource reading list

 

(See also the readings above)

 

Abbott, L. (1994) ‘”play is fun, but it’s hard work, too!” The search for quality play in the early years’, in L. Abbott and R. Rodger (eds), Quality Education in the Early Years, Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 3754; Lib Ref.: 372.21/ABB

Albon, D. (2011) ‘Postmodern and post-structuralist perspectives on early childhood education’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 3852;  Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Alexander, R. J. (1984) ‘Primary ideology’, in his Primary Teaching, London: Holt Rinehart Wilson; Lib. ref.: 372.1/ALE

Anning, A., Cullen, J. and Fleer, M. (eds) (2008) Early Childhood Education: Culture and Society, 2ndedn, London: Sage, 248pp; Lib. Ref.: on order (1stedn at 372.216/ANN)

Baker, B. and Heyning, K. (eds) (2004) Dangerous Coagulations?: The Uses of Foucault in the Study of Education, New York : Peter Lang; Lib. ref.: 370.1/BAK

Ball, C. (1994) Start Right: The Importance of Early Learning, London: Royal Society of Arts,135pp; Lib. Ref.: 372.21/BAL

Ball, C. (1999) ‘Quality and professionalism in early childhood’, in L. Abbott and H. Moylett (eds) Early Education Transformed, London: Falmer Press, pp. 417;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/ABB

Barnett, W.S. and Boocock, S.S. (eds) (1998) Early Care and Education for Children in Poverty: Promises, Programs, and Long-Term Results, Albany: State University of New York Press

Barron, I. (2005) ‘Understanding development in early childhood’, in L. Jones, R. Holmes and J. Powell (eds), Early Childhood Studies: A Multiprofessional Perspective, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp.194203;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/JON

Bates, C. (1999) Play in a Godless World: The Theory and Practice of Play in Shakespeare, Nietzsche and Freud, London: Open Gate Press (Lib ref.: on order)

Beardsley, G.andHarnett P (1998) Exploring Play in the Primary Classroom, London: Fulton; Lib. ref.: 372.1/BEA

Bilton, H. (2010) Outdoor Play in the Early Years: Management and Innovation, 3rdedn,London:Sage; Lib. ref.: on order (2ndedn = 372.216/BIL)

Blaise, M. and Andrew, Y. (2005) ‘How “bad” can it be? Troubling gender, sexuality, and early childhood teaching?’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 49–57; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL

Blenkin, G., Rose, J. and Yue, N. (1996) ‘Government policies and early education’, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal,4 (2): 5–19

Bloch, M.N. (2013) (forthcoming) Governing Young Children, Families, and their Care: A Critical Policy Analysis of Early Education and Child Care, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Bloch, M.N. and Popkewitz, T.S (2006) ‘Constructing the parent, teacher, and child: discourses of development’, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, New York: Peter Lang; Lib Ref.:  372.216/SOT

Boyden, J. (1997) ‘Childhood and the policy makers: a comparative perspective on the globalization of childhood’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 190229; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Brannen, and Moss, P. (2002a) Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA

Brannen, J. and Moss, P. (2002b) ‘Some thoughts on re-thinking children’s care’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss, P. (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 198–209 (Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA)

Braun, S.J. and Edwards, E.P (1972) History and Theory of Early Childhood Education, Worthington, OH: Charles A. Jones Publ Co; Lib Ref.: on order

Bremner, J.G. (1994) Infancy, 2ndedn, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell (Lib ref.: 155.4/BRE)

Brooker, L. (2005) ‘Learning to be a child: cultural diversity and early years ideology’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 115–30; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL

Bruce, T. (1998) ‘Principles of the early childhood curriculum’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 1926 (Lib. ref.: on order)

Bruce, T. (ed.) (2010) Early Childhood: A Guide for Students, 2nd edn, London: Sage; Lib Ref.:  372.216/BRU

Bruce, T. (2011) Early Childhood Education, 4th edn, London: Hodder Education, 240pp; Lib Ref.: on order (earlier editions are at 372.216/BRU)

Buckingham, D. (2000) After the Death of Childhood: Growing Up in the Age of Electronic Media, Cambridge: Policy Press (Lib ref.: 302.234/BUC)

Cameron, C. (2002) ‘An historical perspective on changing childcare policy’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss, P. (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 80–96 (Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA)

Cannella, G.S. (2005) ‘Reconceptualizing the field (of early care and education): if ‘Western’ child development is a problem, then what do we do?’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 17–39; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL

Chang, H. N.-L., Muckelroy, A. and Pulido-Tobiassen, D. and Dowell, C. (2006) ‘Redefining childcare and early education in a diverse society: dialogue and reflection, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, 3rdedn, New York: Peter Lang (Lib Ref.: 372.216/SOT)

Clark, M.M. and Waller, T. (2007) Early Childhood Education and Care: Policy and Practice, London: Sage (Lib Ref.: 372.216/CLA)

Clarke, A.M. and Clarke, A.D.B. (1976) Early Experience: Myth and Evidence, Cambridge: Open Books Publishing (Lib ref.: 155.4/CLA)

Connolly, P. (2003) Boys and Schooling in the Early Years, London: RoutledgeFalmer, 264pp; Lib. Ref.: 370.19345/CON

Costello, P. (2000) Thinking Skills and Early Childhood Education, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.: 372.216/COS

Cowie, B. and Carr, M. (2008) ‘The consequences of socio-cultural assessment, in A. Anning, J. Cullen and M. Fleer (eds), Early Childhood Education: Culture and Society, 2ndedn, London: Sage, pp. 105–16; Lib. Ref.: on order

Curtis, A. (1997) A Curriculum for the Pre-School Child, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, 224pp; Lib. Ref.: 375/CUR

Dahlberg, G. and Moss, P. (2005) ‘Major and minor politics’, in their Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education, London: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 12154; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DAH

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007a) Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, 223pp; Lib ref.: on order at 14/1/13 (1st edn at 372.216/DAH)

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007b) ‘Constructing early childhood: what do we think it is?’, in their Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, pp. 43–61; Lib ref.: on order at 14/1/13 (1st edn at 372.216/DAH)

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. and Pence, A. (2007c) ‘Constructing the early childhood institution: what do we think they are for?’, in their Beyond Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care: Languages of Evaluation, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, pp. 62–86; Lib ref.: on order at 14/1/13 (1st edn at 372.216/DAH)

David, T. (1990) Under Five – Under-educated?, Open University Press (Lib. Ref.: 372.21/DAV)

David, T. (1996) ‘Their right to play’, in C. Nutbrown (ed.),Respectful Educators, Capable Learners: Children’s Rights and Early Education, London: Paul Chapman, Ch. 9; Lib Ref.: 372.216/NUT

David, T. (1999) Young Children Learning, London: Paul Chapman (Lib. Ref.: 372.1/DAV)

David, T. (2011) ‘Play – transforming thinking’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 197–209 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

David, T., Curtis, A, and Siraj-Blatchford, I. (1993) Effective Teaching in the Early Years: Fostering Children's Learning, Stoke: Trentham Books (Lib. Ref.: 372.1/DAV)

Doherty, J. and Hughes, M. (2009) Child Development: Theory and Practice 011, Harlow: Longman, 512pp; Lib. Ref.: 155.4/DOH

Donaldsdon, M. (1987) Children's Minds, London: Fontana (Lib ref.: 155.413/DON)

Dowling, M. (1995) Starting School at Four, London: Paul Chapman; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DOW

Drifte, C.,Schnelling, K. and Spencer, C. (2003) Handbook for Pre-school SEN Provision: The Code of Practice in Relation to the Early Years, 2ndedn,London: Fulton; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DRI

Drury, R,, Miller, L. and Campbell, R. (2000) Looking at Early Years Education and Care, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DOW

Duffy, B. (2006) Supporting Creativity and Imagination in the Early Years, Maidenhead: Open University Press, 208pp; Lib. Ref.: 370.157/DUF

Edgington, M. (1998) The Nursery Teacher in Action: Teaching 3,4 and 5-Year Olds, 2ndedn, London: Paul Chapman; Lib Ref.: 372.216/EDG

Elkind, D. (2007) The Hurried Child: Growing up Too Fast Too Soon, 25thannivedn, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press (Lib ref.: on order. 2ndedn at 155.418/ELK)

Elkind, D. (2011) ‘Can We Play?’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 189–96 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Emanuel, R. (1998) ‘The-child-in-the-family-in-the-nursery’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 4365 (Lib. ref.: on order)

Empson, J.M. and Nabuzoka, D, (2003) Atypical Child Development in Context, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (Lib. Ref.: 305.231/EMP)

Epstein, A.S., Johnson, S. and Lafferty, P. (2011) ‘The High/Scope approach’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 111–18 (Lib. Ref.: 372.21/MIL)

Farquhar, S. and Fitzsimons, P. Philosophy of Early Childhood Education: Transforming Narratives, Oxford: Blackwell; Lib ref.: on order (also published as Educational Philosophy and Theory, 39 (3), 2008 – available online)

Fisher, J. (2013) Starting from the Child: Teaching and Learning from 3 to 8, 4thedn,Maidenhead: Open University Press (orig, 1996; 3rdedn, 2007, at: Lib Ref.: 370.1/FIS)

Freud, A. (1949) ‘Nursery school education: its uses and dangers’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, 1998, pp. 8793 (Lib. ref.: on order)

Furedi, F. and Bristow, J. (2010) Licensed to Hug: How Child Protection Policies Are Poisoning the Relationship Between the Generations and Damaging the Voluntary Sector, 2nd edn, London: Civitas (Lib ref.: 362.7/HOU)

Gergen, K.J., Gloger-Tippelt, G. and Berkowitz, P. (1990) ‘The cultural construction of the developing child’, in G.R. Semin and K.J. Gergen (eds), Everyday Understanding: Social and Scientific Implications, London: Sage (Lib ref.: on order)

Gill, T. (2007) No Fear: Growing Up in a Risk Averse Society, London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation (Lib ref.: on order)

Gittins, D. (1998) ‘Who owns children?’, in her The Child in Question, London: Macmillan, Ch. 2; Lib Ref.: 305.23/GIT

Goddard Blythe, S. (2005) The Well Balanced Child: Movement and Early Learning, 2ndedn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press (Lib. Ref.: 155.412/GOD)

Goddard Blythe, S. (2011) The Genius of Natural Childhood: Secrets of Thriving Children, Stroud: Hawthorn Press (Lib. Ref.: on order)

Godwin, D.and Perkins, M. (2002) Teaching Language and Literacy in the Early Years, 2ndedn, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.:372.216/GOD

Goldschmied, E. and Jackson, S. (2003) People Under Three: Young Children in Day Care, 2ndedn, London: Routledge; Lib Ref.: 372.216/GOL

Golinkoff, R.M., Singer, D.G. and Hirsh-Pasek, K. (eds) (2006) Play = Learning: How Play Motivates and Enhances Children's Cognitive and Social-Emotional Growth, New York: Oxford University Press (Lib. Ref.: available as an ebook)

Gopnik, A., Kuhl, P.K. and Meltzoff, A.N. (2001) How Babies Think: The Science of Childhood, London : Phoenix(Lib. Ref.: 155.413/GOP)

Gregory, E. (1996) Making Sense of a New World: Learning to Read in a Second Language, London: Paul Chapman; Lib Ref.: 375.4/GRE

Gregory, E. (2008) Learning to Read in a New Language: Making Sense of Words and Worlds, 2nd edn, London: Sage; Lib Ref.: 375.4/GRE

Griffiths, R. (1965) A Study of Imagination in Early Childhood, and its Function in Mental Development, Bath: Chivers Ltd (Lib ref.: 155.413/GRI)

Gura, P. (ed.) (1997) Reflections on Early Education and Care – Inspired by Visits to Reggio Emilia, Italy, London, BAECE; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SCO (Oversize)

Harris, D.B. (1967) The Concept of Development: Issues in the Study of Human Behaviour, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (Lib ref.: 155.4/HAR)

Hatch, J.A. (2006) ‘Introducing postmodern thought in a thoroughly modern university’, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, New York: Peter Lang; Lib Ref.:  372.216/SOT

Headington, R (2000) Monitoring, Assessment, Recording, Reporting and Accountability: Meeting the Standards, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.: 371.26/HEA

Healy, J.M. (2004) Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning from Birth to Adolescence, 3rdedn, New York: Broadway Books (Lib ref.: on order)

Hendrick, H. (1997) ‘Constructions and reconstructioins of British childhood: an interpretive survey, 1800 to the present’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 3462; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Holligan, C. (2000) ‘Discipline and normalization in the nursery: the Foucaultian gaze’, in H. Penn (ed.),Early Childhood Services: Theory, Policy and Practice, Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 134–46; Lib. ref.: 372.21/PEN

Holmes, R. (2005) ‘Exploring tensions within the interplay of rights, duties and responsibilities’, in L. Jones, R. Holmes and J. Powell (eds), Early Childhood Studies: A Multiprofessional Perspective, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 2639;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/JON

House, R. (2005-6) 'Non-family childcare in early childhood – bane or blessing?…', The Mother magazine, 16 (Winter), pp. 20–3 (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2009) ‘The mind object and “dream consciousness”: a Winnicottian and a Steinerean rationale for challenging the premature “adultisation” of children’, in R. House and Del Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 155–69 (Lib. Ref.:   155.4/HOU) (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (ed.) (2011a) Too Much, Too Soon?: Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press: Stroud (Lib. Ref.: 372.21/HOU)

House, R. (2011b) ‘Early childhood research and its political usage: some cautionary remarks’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 247–64 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU) (available from Richard on request)

House, R. (2012) ‘Fifty years on from Kuhn: towards an urgently needed paradigmatic transformation in education’, Interconnections: Journal of Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Anglia Ruskin University, 8: 25–32 (available from Richard on request)

Hughes, P. and Mac Naughton, G. (2001) ‘Fractured or manufactured: gendered identities and culture in the early years’, in S. Grieshaber and G.S. Cannella (eds), Embracing Identities in Early Childhood Education: Diversity and Possibilities, New York ; London : Teachers College Press, pp. 11430; Lib Ref.: 372.216/GRI

Ingleby, E. (2012) Early Childhood Studies: A Social Science Perspective, London: Bloomsbury; Lib Ref.:  5 copies on order

Ingleby, E. and Oliver, G. (2008) Applied Social Science for Early Years, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib Ref.: one available in INTERNET

James, A. and James, A.L. (2004) Constructing Childhood: Theory, Policy and Social Practice, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (Lib. Ref.: 305.23/JAM)

Jenks, C. (2005) ‘Constituting childhood’, in his Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Routledge, pp. 1–28; Lib. ref.: 305.23/JEN

Johnston, J. and Nahmad-Williams, L. (2009a) Early Childhood Studies: Principles and Practice, London: Pearson Longman; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JOH  Oversize

Johnston, J. and Nahmad-Williams, L. (2009b) ‘Theories and theorists’, in their Early Childhood Studies: Principles and Practice, London: Pearson Longman, pp. 1648; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JOH Oversize

Jones, L. (2005) ‘The politics of play’, in L. Jones, R. Holmes and J. Powell (eds), Early Childhood Studies: A Multiprofessional Perspective, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 4051;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/JON

Jones, L., Holmes, R. and Powell, J. (2005) Early Childhood Studies: A Multiprofessional Perspective, Milton Keynes: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 372.216/JON (5 copies)

Kagan, J. (1979) Growth of the Child: Reflections on Human Development, London: Longman (Lib ref.: 155.413/KAG)

Kane, J. (ed.) (1999) Education, Information and Transformation: Essays on Learning and Thinking, Prentice-Hall/Merril, Columbus, Ohio (Lib ref.: on order)

Karstadt, L., Lilley, T. and Miller, L. (2000) ‘Professional roles in early childhood’, in: R. Drury and L. Miller, (eds), Looking at Early Years Education and Care, London: David Fulton, pp. 26–34; Lib Ref.: 372.216/DOW

Kessler, S. A. and Hauser, M. (2006) ‘Critical pedagogy and the politics of play’, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, New York: Peter Lang; Lib Ref.:  372.216/SOT

Kincheloe, J.L. (2006) ‘Certifying the damage: mainstream educational psychology and the oppression of children’, in L.D. Soto (ed.), The Politics of Early Childhood Education, New York: Peter Lang; Lib Ref.:  372.216/SOT

Kingett, M.J. (1995) Developing a Play-Based Curriculum: Theory into Practice in the 4-plus Unit, Kettering: Jutland Press; Lib Ref.: 372.216/KIN

Kwon, Y.-I. (2002) ‘Changing curriculum for early childhood education in England’, Early Childhood Research and Practice, 14 (1): downloadable at: http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n2/kwon.html

Layard, R. and Dunn, J.F. (2009) A Good Childhood: Searching for Values in a Competitive Age, Harmondsworth: Penguin (Lib ref.: 305.23/LAY)

Leach, P. (1994) Children First: What Our Society Must Do - and Is Not Doing - for our Children Today, Harmondsworth: Penguin (Lib ref.: 305.23/LEA)

Leach, P. (2009) Childcare Today, Cambridge: Policy Press (Lib ref.: on order)

Leach, P. (2011) ‘The EYFS and the real foundations of children’s early years’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 21–35 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Lieberman, A.F. (1995) The Emotional Life of the Toddler, New York: Simon & Schuster [not in lib.]

Lievegoed, B. (2005) Phases of Childhood: Growing in Body, Soul and Spirit, 3rdedn, Edinburgh: Floris Books (Lib ref.: on order)

Light, P., Sheldon, S. and Woodhead, M. (eds) (1991) Learning to Think: Child Development in Social Context London: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 155.4/LIG

Lindon, J. (2012) Understanding Child Development:08 Years: Linking Theory and Practice, 3rdedn, London: Hodder Arnold, 272pp; Lib. Ref.: available as an ebook (2ndedn at 155.4/LIN)

Linn, S, (2009) The Case for Make Believe: Saving Play in a Commercialized World, 2ndedn, New York: The New Press (Lib ref.: on order)

McDowall Clark, R. (2010) Childhood in Society for Early Childhood Studies, Exeter: Learning matters;  Lib Ref.: on order

MacNaughton, G. (2005) Doing Foucault in Early Childhood Studies: Applying Post-Structural Ideas, London: Routledge;  Lib Ref.:  372.216/MAC (and as an ebook; more on order)

Manning-Morton, J. (2011) ‘Not just the tip of the iceberg: psychoanalytic ideas and early years practice’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 2137;  Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Maynard, T. and Thomas, N. (eds) (2009) An Introduction to Early Childhood Studies, 2ndedn, London: Sage;  Lib Ref.: on order (first edn, 2004, at: Lib Ref.: 372.216/MAY

Miller, L. and Hevey, D. (eds) (2012a) Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage; Lib. Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Miller, L. and Pound, L. (2011a) Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage; Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Miller, L. and Pound, L. (2011b) ‘Towards a critical perspective’, in L. Miller and L. Pound (eds), Theories and Approaches to Learning in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 117; Lib Ref.: 372.21/MIL

Moore, R.S. and Moore, D.N. (1989) School Can Wait, Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press [not in lib.]

Morgan, H. (1999) The Imagination of Early Childhood Education, London: Bergin & Garvey (Lib. Ref.: 372.21/MOR)

Moss, P. and Penn, H. (1996) Transforming Nursery Education, London: Paul Chapman (Lib. Ref.: 372.216/MOS)

Moss, P. and Penn, H. (2003) ‘A historical perspective on nursery education’, in J. Devereux and L. Miller (eds), Working with Children in the Early Years, London: Fulton, pp. 19–27 (Lib. Ref.: 372.216/DEV)

Moyles, J.R. (1989) ‘Play and learning’, in her Just playing? The Role and Status of Play in Early Childhood Education, Buckingham: Open University Press, Ch. 2; Lib Ref.: 155.418/MOY

Moyles, J. (ed.) (2010) The Excellence of Play, 3rdedn, Buckingham: Open University Press (orig. 1994); Lib Ref.: 372.21/MOY

National Children’s Bureau (1998) Quality in Diversity in Early Learning, London: NCB; Lib Ref.: 372.216/QUA

Neaum, S. (2010) Child Development for Early Childhood Studies, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib Ref.: on order

Neaum, S. (2012) Language and Literacy for the Early Years, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib Ref.: on order

Nutbrown, C. (ed.) (1996) Respectful Educators, Capable Learners: Children’s Rights and Early Education, London: Paul Chapman; Lib Ref.: 372.216/QUA

Nutbrown, C. (2011a) Threads of Thinking: Schemas and Young Children's Learning, 4thedn, London: Sage; Lib Ref.: 370.15/NUT

Nutbrown, C. (2011b) Key Concepts in Early Childhood Education andCare, 2nd  edn, London: Sage; Lib Ref.: on order (first edn at 372.216/NUT)

Nutbrown, C., Clough, P. and Selbie, P. (2008) Early Childhood Education: History, Philosophy and Experience, London: Sage (Lib Ref.: 3 copies on order at 14/1/13)

OECD (2001) Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care, Paris: OECD Publishing, 214pp;  Lib. Ref.: on order

OECD (2006) Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care, Part 2, Paris: OECD Publishing, 441pp; Lib. Ref.: on order

OECD (2007) Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science, vol. 2, Paris: OECD (not in the lib ref.)

Olfman, S. (2003) All Work and No Play: How Educational Reforms are Harming Our Preschoolers, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press [not in lib.]

Open EYE Campaign (2011) ‘The Tickell Review of the Early Years Foundation Stage: An ‘Open EYE’ dialogue’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 83–97 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Osgood, J. (2004) ‘Time to get down to business? The responses of early years practitioners to entrepreneurial approaches to professionalism, Journal of Early Childhood Research, 2 (1): 524; available through Athens DOI: 10.1177/1476718X0421001

Osgood, J. (2005) ‘Who cares? The classed nature of childcare’, Gender and Education, 17 (3): 289303; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09540250500145098

Osgood, J. (2006a) ‘Rethinking “professionalism” in the early years: perspectives from the United Kingdom’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 14 (you can access this paper online here: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/rss/abstract.asp?j=ciec&aid=2738

Osgood, J. (2006b) ‘Professionalism and performativity: the feminist challenge facing early years practitioners’, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 26 (2): 18799; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09575140600759997

Osgood, J. (2006c)Deconstructing professionalism in early childhood education: resisting the regulatory gaze’, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 514(you can access this paper online here: http://www.wwwords.co.uk/pdf/freetoview.asp?j=ciec&vol=7&issue=1&year=2006&article=2_Osgood_CIEC_7_1_web)

Osgood, J. (2009) ‘Childcare workforce reform in England and “the early years professional”: a critical discourse analysis’, Journal of Education Policy, 24 (6): 73351; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/02680930903244557

Osgood, J. (2010) ‘Reconstructing professionalism in ECEC: the case for the “critically reflective emotional professional”, Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 30 (2): 11933; available through Athens DOI: 10.1080/09575146.2010.490905

Owen, C. (2003) ‘Men in the nursery’, in J. Brannen, and P. Moss (eds), Re-Thinking Children's Care, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 99113; Lib Ref.: 362.7/BRA

Pahl, K. (1999) Transformations: Children’s Meaning Making Nursery Education, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham; Lib Ref.: 372.216/PAH

Palmer, S. (2009) ‘What is toxic childhood?’, in R. House and D. Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 37–54 (Lib ref.: 155.4/HOU)

Parker-Rees, R. (1999) ‘Protecting playfulness’, in L. Abbott and H. Moylett  (eds) Early Education Transformed, London: Falmer Press, pp. 6172;  Lib Ref.: 372.216/ABB

Parker-Rees, R., Leeson, C., Savage, J. and Willan, J.(eds) (2010) Early Childhood Studies: An Introduction to the Study of Children's Worlds and Children's Lives, 3rd edn, Exeter: Learning Matters;  Lib Ref.:  372.216/WIL (4 copies)

Pascal, C. and Bertram, T. (2001) Effective Early Learning: Case Studies in Improvement, London: Hodder & Stoughton; Lib Ref.:  372.216/PAS

Penn, H. (1997) Comparing Nurseries: Staff and Children in Italy, Spain and the UK, London: Chapman; Lib Ref.:  372.216/PEN

Penn, H. (ed.) (2000) Early Childhood Services: Theory, Policy and Practice,, Buckingham: Open University Press; Lib. ref.: 372.21/PEN

Phillips, A. (1998) ‘Learning not to talk’, in I. Ward (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education, London: Karnac and Freud Museum, pp. 2742 (Lib. ref.: on order)

Phillips, A. (1999) The Beast in the Nursery, London: Faber (Lib. Ref.: 305.23/PHI)

Prout, A. and James, A. (1997) ‘A new paradigm for the sociology of childhood? Provenenance, promise and problems’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 733; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Pugh, G. (ed.) (2010) Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, 5thedn, London: Sage; Lib Ref.:  372.216/PUG

Pugh, G., De’Ath, E. and Smith, C. (1994) Confident Parents, Confident Children: Policy and Practice in Parent Education and Support, London: National Children's Bureau; Lib Ref.:306.87/PUG

QCA/DfEE (2000) Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage, London: HMSO; Lib Ref.:  372/QCA (Oversize)

Qvortrup, J. (1997) ‘A voice for children in statistical and social accounting: a plea foe children’s rights to be heard’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 85106; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Rawson, M. and Rose, M. (2006) Ready to Learn: From Birth to School Readiness, 2ndedn, Stroud: Hawthorn Press (Lib ref.: 372.216/RAW)

Roberts, R. (2006) Self-esteem and Early Learning: Key People from Birth to School, 3rdedn, London : Paul Chapman, 208pp; Lib.: available as an ebook

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006a) Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, 224pp; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006b) ‘Doing feminist poststructuralist theory with early childhood educators’, in their Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 2443; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006c) ‘Gender and performativity in early childhood education’, in their Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 12746; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Robinson, K. and Jones Diaz, C. (2006d) ‘”It’s more than black dolls and brown paint”: critical multiculturalism, whiteness and early childhood education’, in their Diversity and Difference in Early Childhood Education: Issues for Theory and Practice, Maidenhead : Open University Press, pp. 6381; Lib Ref.: 372.216/ROB

Robson, S. and Smedley, S. (eds) (2003) Education in Early Childhood: First Things First, 2ndedn, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.:  372.216/ROB

Rodd, J. (2013) Leadership in Early Childhood: The Pathway to Professionalism, 4thedn,Buckingham, Open University Press; Lib Ref.: on order (previous edn at 372.216/ROD)

Rodger, R. (2012) Planning an Appropriate Curriculum in the Early Years: A Guide for Early Years Practitioners and Leaders, Students and Parents, 3rdedn, London: Routlege; Lib Ref.: on order (previous edn at 372.216/ROD)

Roffey, S. and Parry, J. (2010) Special Needs in the Early Years: Supporting Collaboration, Communication and Co-ordination, 3rdedn, London: Routledge; Lib Ref.: on order (1st edn at 372.216/ROF)

Ryce-Menuhin, J. (1988) The Self in Early Childhood, London: Free Association Books (Lib. Ref.: being shelved, Jan ’13)

Sayeed, Z. and Ellen, G. (2000a) Early Years Play: A Happy Medium for Assessment and Intervention, London: David Fulton, 144pp; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SAY

Sayeed, Z. and Ellen, G. (2000b) ‘Play – culture-free or culture-biased?’, in their Early Years Play: A Happy Medium for Assessment and Intervention, London: David Fulton, pp. 1727; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SAY

Sayeed, Z.and Guerin, E. (2000) Early Years Play: A Happy Medium for Assessment and Intervention, London, Fulton; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SAY

School Curriculum Assessment Authority (1996) Baseline Assessment. Draft Proposals London: SCAA; Lib Ref.: 372.19/SCH

Schwartz, E. (2009) ‘From playing to thinking: how the Kindergarten provides a foundation for scientific understanding’, in R. House and D. Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 209–20 (Lib ref.: 155.4/HOU)

Schweinhart, L.J., Barnes, H.V. and  Weikart, D.P. (1993) Significant Benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 27, Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press [not in lib.] (see website at: http://highscope.org/)

Scott, W. and House, R. (2011) ‘Conclusions and ways ahead: recommendations for educators and policy-makers’, in R. House (ed.), Too Much, Too Soon? Early Learning and the Erosion of Childhood, Hawthorn Press, Stroud, 2011, pp. 323–33 (Lib ref.: 372.21/HOU)

Siraj Blatchford, I. (1994) The Early Years: Laying the Foundation for Racial Equality, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham; Lib Ref.: 370.19342/SIR

Siraj Blatchford, I. (ed.) (1998) A Curriculum Development Handbook for Early Childhood Educators, Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SIR

Siraj Blatchford, I. and Clarke, P. (2000) Supporting Identity, Diversity and Language in the Early Years, Buckingham: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 372.216/SIR

Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Woodhead, M. (eds) (2009) Effective Early Childhood Programmes, Milton Keynes: Open University Press; 'Early Childhood In Focus' series, No. 4 (see Learning Network)

Small, M.F. (1999) Our Babies, Ourselves: How Biology and Culture Shape the Way We Parent, London: Anchor Books/Doubleday (Lib ref.: 649.1/SMA)

Smith, K. (1994) ‘Play and the uses of play’, in J. Moyles (ed.),The Excellence of Play, Buckingham: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 372.21/MOY (and newer edn available)

Smith, S.J. (1998) Risk and Our Pedagogical Relation to Children: On the Playground and Beyond, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press (Lib ref.: on order)

Soto, L.D. (ed.) (2006) The Politics of Early Childhood Education, 3rdedn, New York: Peter Lang (Lib Ref.: 372.216/SOT)

Spencer, C. and Schnelling, K. (1998) Handbook for Pre-School SEN Provision, London: Fulton; Lib Ref.:  372.216/SPE (see Drifte et al., 2003 for 2nd edn)

Staggs, L. (2011) ‘The rhetoric and reality of a national strategy on early education and assessment’, in L. Miller and D. Hevey (eds), Policy Issues in the Early Years, London: Sage, pp. 139–52 (Lib. Ref.: on order at 14/1/13)

Steinberg, S.R. and Kincheloe, J.L. (1998) Kinderculture: The Corporate Construction of Childhood, Boulder, Colo.; Oxford : Westview (Lib. Ref.: 305.23/STE)

Sylva, K. and Roberts, F. (2010) 'Quality in early childhood education: evidence for long-term effects', in G. Pugh and B. Duffy (eds), Contemporary Issues in the Early Years, 5th edn, London: Sage, pp. 47-62

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Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and  Taggart, B. Early Childhood Matters: Evidence from the Effective Pre-school and Primary Education Project, London: Routledge (Lib ref.: 372.216/SYL)

Taylor, J., Bond, E. and Woods, M. (2013) Early Childhood Studies: A Multi-disciplinary and Holistic Introduction, 3rdedn, London: Hodder Education; Lib Ref.: on order (2nd  edn available as an ebook)

Taylor, J. and Woods, M. (eds) (2005) Early Childhood Studies: An Holistic Introduction, 2ndedn, London: Hodder Education/Arnold; 305.23/TAY

Tymms, P. and Merrell, C. (2008) ‘On-entry baseline assessment across cultures’, in A. Anning, J. Cullen and M. Fleer (eds), Early Childhood Education: Culture and Society, 2ndedn, London: Sage, pp. 117–29; Lib. Ref.: on order

Waller, T. (2009) An Introduction to Early Childhood: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2nd edn; Lib Ref.: on order (1st edn available at 372.216/WAL – 6 copies)

Waller, T., Whitmarsh, J. and Clarke, K. (2011) Making Sense of Theory and Practice in Early Childhood: The Power of Ideas, Maidenhead: Open University Press; Lib Ref.: 372.21/WAL (6 available)

Walsh, D.J. (2005) ‘Developmental theory and early childhood education: necessary but not sufficient’, in N. Yelland (ed.), Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp. 40–8; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL

Ward, I. (ed.) Psychology of Nursery Education: Papers Presented at the Anna Freud Centre Centenary Conference, November 1995, London: Karnac and Freud Museum (Lib. ref.: on order)

Whitbread, D. (1996) Teaching and Learning in the Early Years, London: Routledge

Whitbread, D. and Coltman, P. (2008) Teaching and Learning in the Early Years, 3rd  edn, London: Routledge; Lib Ref.:372.216/WIHI (3 available)

Wild, M. and Mitchell, H. (eds) (2007) Early Childhood Studies Reflective Reader, Exeter: Learning Matters; Lib Ref.:372.216/WIL (11 available)

Winnicott, D.W. (1964) The Child, the Family, and the Outside World, Harmondsworth: Penguin (Lib. Ref.: 306.87/WIN)

Winnicott, D.W. (1971) Playing and Reality, London: Tavistock Publications (Lib. Ref.: 616.891/WIN)

Winnicott, D.W. (1994) Talking to Parents, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press (Lib ref.: on order)

Winnicott, D.W. (1998) Thinking about Children, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press (Lib ref.: on order

Winnicott, D.W. (2002) Winnicott on The Child, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press (Lib ref.: on order)

Wolfendale, S. (1997) Meeting Special Needs in the Early Years, London: Fulton

Wood, E. (2008) ‘Developing a pedagogy of play’, in A. Anning, J. Cullen and M. Fleer (eds), Early Childhood Education: Culture and Society, 2ndedn, London: Sage, pp. 27–38; Lib. Ref.: on order

Wood, E. (2009) ‘Everyday play activities as therapeutic and pedagogical encounters’, in R. House and D. Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 195–208 (Lib ref.: 155.4/HOU)

Wood, E. and Attfield, J. (2005) Play, Learning and the Early Childhood Curriculum, 2ndedn, London: Sage

Wood, L. (1997) ‘Play: future directions’, Early Years, 17 (2): 28–33

Woodhead, M. (1997) ‘Psychology and the cultural construction of children’s needs’, in A. James and A. Prout (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood, 2ndedn, London: Falmer, pp. 6384; Lib Ref.: 305.23/JAM

Yelland, N. (ed.) (2005) Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education, Maidenhead: Open University Press, 272pp; Lib Ref.: 372.216/YEL (5 available)

Youell, B. (2009) ‘The importance of play and playfulness’, in R. House and D. Loewenthal (eds), Childhood, Well-being and a Therapeutic Ethos, London: Karnac Books, 2009, pp. 183–94 (Lib ref.: 155.4/HOU)